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  • On the Cover

Hawai‘i’s first territorial legislature, convened 21 January 1901, was headed by the native-led ‘Ao‘ao Kū‘oko‘a Home-Rula (Independent Home-Rule Party.) The party, a merger of the political organizations Hui Hawai‘i Aloha ‘Āina and Hui Kālai ‘āina, was led by highly respected and experienced native leaders from around the islands, including Lāhainā lawyer and former Hawaiian Kingdom legislator, William Pūnohu White; Lāhainā church trustee and Hui Aloha ‘Āina delegate Ramon Hoe Makekau (bottom left); and Moloka‘i cultural expert and member of the first graduating class at the Kamehameha School for Boys, Frederick William Kahapula Beckley Jr. (bottom right).

William Pūnohu White, (top center) ca. 1890s; photographer unknown. Bishop Museum.

Ramon Hoe Makekau, ca. 1890s. Courtesy of the Hawai‘i State Archives.

Frederick William Kahapula Beckley Jr., 1904. Photographer J.J. Williams, Bishop Museum.



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