Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

Ted Goebel

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pp. 9-12

Historically, Dry Creek is one of the most important archaeological sites of Beringia, the Ice Age gateway to the Americas. To understand Dry Creek’s significance, consider the state of Alaskan archaeology in 1974, when Roger Powers, professor of anthropology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, initiated its full-scale excavation. Geomorphologists understood...

Part 1: The Dry Creek Report

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pp. 13-14

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1. Introduction

R. Dale Guthrie and W. Roger Powers

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pp. 15-20

There seem to be at least two ways in which sites are currently dug. One is to obtain the artifactual material in order to produce a point in time and space with typological identity so that a cumulative pattern might emerge of the “phylogenetic” distribution and chronology of people and their traditions. Studies of palynology, paleontology, and geology all become...

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2. The Dry Creek Site: A History and Description

W. Roger Powers

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pp. 21-36

The Dry Creek site (HEA-005) lies in the Nenana River valley of central Alaska and is located about 180 km southwest of Fairbanks near the town of Healy (figure 2.1). The site proper is situated on a prominent bluff that lies on the north side of the bed of Dry Creek and is about 0.5 km upstream from the Parks Highway bridge over Dry Creek...

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3. The Geology of the Dry Creek Site

W. Roger Powers

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pp. 37-48

The Pleistocene geology of the Nenana Valley has been studied in detail by Wahrhaftig (1958), and the regional geology of the Dry Creek site and its relationship to the broader geological framework of the Nenana Valley has been discussed thoroughly (Thorson and Hamilton 1977). Further field investigations concentrating on the surficial Pleistocene geology...

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4. Lithic Technology of the Dry Creek Site

W. Roger Powers

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pp. 49-118

The Dry Creek stoneworkers selected a wide range of raw materials for the production of their tools: most commonly used were rhyolite (light, dark, and banded), degraded quartzite (often referred to as just quartzite in the report),1 grey chert, and chalcedony (including jasper). Of these, the rhyolite and quartzite are locally available, the former occurring east of...

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5. The Occupation Floors at the Dry Creek Site

John F. Hoffecker

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pp. 119-164

While the eolian sedimentary context of the Dry Creek site provides important information on the temporal and stratigraphic (i.e., vertical) relationships among the remains, the broadscale excavations provided much information on the horizontal spatial relationships. These horizontal spatial relationships may be said to comprise “occupation floors,” one of which has...

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6. Paleoecology of the Dry Creek Site and Its Implications for Early Hunters

R. Dale Guthrie

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pp. 165-204

At about 11,500 14C yr BP (13,500 cal yr BP), plus or minus a few tens of human generations, monumental changes culminated throughout North America and Eurasia. Jet stream patterns had shifted, climatic fronts had moved, and the large ice sheets were rapidly retreating. Entire plant biomes began to undergo restructuring and redistribution. Large grazing ungulates and...

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7. Dry Creek and Its Place in the Early Archaeology of the North

W. Roger Powers and R. Dale Guthrie

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pp. 205-214

Like finding another Clovis site in the Great Plains, Dry Creek is another Denali Complex site in interior Alaska. The site produced neither significantly new lithic “types” nor any radical chronological revision of these lithic types. Rather, the main importance of the Dry Creek site is within these already established time boundaries and typologies. It begins to address...

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Appendix A: Component IV at the Dry Creek Site

W. Roger Powers

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pp. 215-228

Component IV is the only cultural horizon for the later part of the Holocene epoch preserved at the Dry Creek site. Artifacts assigned to this component were recovered from Loess 6/Paleosol 4a, which averages 100 mm in thickness (figures 2.9, 3.1–3.6). This buried soil unit appears to have developed during the establishment of the taiga over the Alaskan...

Part 2: Dry Creek Update

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8. New Geoarchaeology and Geochronology at Dry Creek

Kelly E. Graf, Lyndsay M. DiPietro, Kathryn Krasinski, Brendan J. Culleton, Douglas J. Kennett, Angela K. Gore, and Heather L. Smith

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pp. 231-272

Since the close of W. R. Powers’s excavations at Dry Creek in 1977, concerns regarding the site’s stratigraphic and archaeological integrity have been repeatedly raised, calling into question Powers’s team’s interpretations of the geochronological succession of its terminal Pleistocene cultural components, diminishing the potential significance of its early record...

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9. A Dry Creek Retrospective

Ted Goebel and John F. Hoffecker

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pp. 273-300

The Dry Creek report was originally drafted in 1983, but despite undergoing peer review and revisions later that decade, it was never published. In the years that have passed since then, major developments have occurred in Beringian Quaternary studies and archaeology as well as in the study of the peopling of the Americas. Nevertheless, the Dry Creek site is...

References Cited

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pp. 301-332

Contributors

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pp. 333-334

Index

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pp. 335-343