Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. 8-9

List of Tables and Maps

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pp. 10-11

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 12-13

I welcome the opportunity to express my gratitude to Philip E. Jacob. Without his support my assignment in Malaysia and this study would not have been possible. In the development of the data base I have received invaluable...

Glossary of Abbreviations

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pp. 14-17

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Introduction

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pp. 18-31

Hardly anyone believes anymore that viable democratic systems can be established in Asian and African states which emerged from colonial rule since World War II. It is a sudden, radical reversal. Just two decades ago scholars rhapsodized...

PART ONE

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Preface

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pp. 34-35

February 15, 1942: a historic day in Southeast Asia. Late that afternoon in Singapore a car flying the Union Jack and a white flag crossing each other brought Lieutenant-General Arthur E. Percival, G.O.C. British Forces in...

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1. A Society Dominated by Communal Cleavages

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pp. 36-67

By the time the Second World War was approaching its shores, the Malayan Peninsula had become the homeland of three major communities. On the Peninsula proper, Malays had a plurality of the population, 46.4 percent; the Chinese accounted...

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2. The Failures of Extreme Designs

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pp. 68-85

It was not a propitious time for developing a new viable political system. World war was raging and even after it was over, for a while at least, legitimacy was a function of military power. Soldiers enjoyed an inordinate...

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3. The Federation of Malaya: The Beginningof Compromise

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pp. 86-97

It is remarkable how radically the relationship among the various communities changed in less than five years. Gone was the confidence that the minimum interest of each would not be violated at the hand of...

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4. The Emergency: Rebellion and Retrogression

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pp. 98-119

Nearly an impossible challenge: to discover generally acceptable terms of inter-communal relationships. No reliable blueprints were available, no guidelines how to proceed. Even at the highest levels of British administration...

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5. Independence: A Constitutional Contractamong Communal Groups

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pp. 120-155

Actually the plans and designs of British administrators, even those formulated at the highest level, were becoming less and less determining. To be sure, Britain still controlled a formidable coercive capacity, one perhaps more massive than...

PART TWO

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Preface

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pp. 158-160

There was still no blueprint. The constitutional contract which was largely the product of intuition defined the goals of political development and set the parameters for legitimate means. It offered little guidance regarding either long-term...

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6. Vertical Mobilization: Popular Support for the Directorate

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pp. 161-176

If election results are decisive tests of the confidence of the population, then the Alliance approach was vindicated. During the first dozen years of independence, the electorate went to the polls twice to select federal and state...

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7. Horizontal Solidarity: Cohesion of the Directorate

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pp. 177-213

All the same, whatever stresses and tensions were building within the political organizations of UMNO, MCA, and MIC, the mutual trust and confidence among their top leaders did not...

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8. The Implementation of Cultural Terms: Slow and Halting Progress

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pp. 214-233

Whether the cohesion of the Directorate would remain firm, and for that matter whether the vertical pattern of mobilization of UMNO, MCA, and MIC would continue to win elections, however, was yet to be seen. More than anything else, the answer would depend upon...

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9. The Implementation of Economic Terms: Rapid Growth of Production, Little Change in Distribution

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pp. 234-261

Few Malays expected the cultural terms of the constitutional contract to be fully implemented within a decade of independence. The vast majority of Malays, however, did anticipate spectacular progress toward its economic...

PART THREE

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Preface

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pp. 264-265

Experimentation and sagacity had produced a system of some originality. British example inspired the salience of democratic politics, but Malayan ingenuity adapted it to a polity dominated by communal cleavages. For twelve years the system appeared to be stable enough within...

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10. Preparing for Elections (1969): The Parties

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pp. 266-279

The time for a new mandate had arrived. On March 20, 1969, Parliament was dissolved by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Rulers and Governors followed suit, and thus the terms of the state legislatures also...

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11. Political Confrontation: A Battle for Votes

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pp. 280-303

Following the custom of democratic politics, the first formal act of the election was the publication of formal public statements. Through them the parties sought to present an appealing image of their goals and...

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12. The Judgment of the Electorate

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pp. 304-322

It almost seemed an ordinary day: Saturday, May 10, 1969. The skies were clear; the weather was pleasant. Shops were open for business as usual. In kampongs and towns work was going on; the routines continued..

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13. Armed Confrontation: From Polls to Parangs

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pp. 323-353

It cannot be said truthfully, however, that on the morning after elections many were particularly concerned with the government's evident devotion to democratic processes. The country was in no mood for detached...

PART FOUR

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Preface

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pp. 356-359

Though some thought that it never would, ultimately the long night did come to an end. Daylight exposed the dimensions of the debris and destruction. As ambulances entered the affected areas to remove...

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14. A Barrier to Political Reconstruction:A Credibility Gap

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pp. 360-384

The Alliance was determined to restore normalcy with all deliberate speed. It would restore order; it would reconstruct the political system. Suggestions by the Opposition and specifically by Dr. Tan Chee Khoon of the...

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15. A Challenge to Political Reconstruction:Leadership Crisis in the Alliance

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pp. 385-400

A serious credibility gap, however, was not the only handicap the government had to master. If it was to proceed to political reconstruction from a solid base it was also required to establish firmly the position of Directorate members as the...

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16. The Program of Political Reconstruction:The Return to Democratic Politics

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pp. 401-437

Communal violence made political reconstruction necessary. A credibility gap and the crisis within UMNO made it difficult. Potent countervailing trends, however, were soon taking hold. If it was a time of troubles, it was no less a time of new...

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Conclusion

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pp. 438-453

Some thirty years have elapsed since the surrender in Singapore. Remarkably eventful, hectic years. The Malayan peninsula was ravaged by world war, menaced by domestic insurgency, and throughout was...

Index

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pp. 454-460