Despite high health expenditures, Lesotho had some of the world's worst health indicators between 2000 and 2014. Official development assistance tripled from $37 to $107 million. PEPFAR funding rose from $3.8 to $32.4 million. Yet, deaths from TB, HIV, infant mortality, and maternal mortality remained unchanged. Lesotho had declining health outcomes amidst increased disease-focused financing and several large infrastructure projects. A World Bank loan financed the state-of-the-art Mamohato Hospital, and the U.S.-supported $362.5 million Millennium Challenge Corporation Project supported primary and secondary health infrastructure. This analysis uses the WHO Health Systems Framework to explore the unintended consequences of health financing on Lesotho's health outcomes. The WHO Health Systems Framework can be used to optimize health financing through investments in health service delivery, health workforce, health information, essential medicines, leadership, and equitable financial strategies. This approach can support governments to achieve universal health coverage and develop comprehensive health systems.


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pp. 56-74
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