Objectives. To identify determinants of follow-up care and diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer among uninsured/underinsured women screened for cervical cancer. Methods. We examined the associations between health care facility, area-level, and individual-level factors on the outcomes of interest in retrospective cohort of women from the New Jersey Cancer Education and Early Detection Program (2000–2015). Results. Women screened at department of health clinics (aOR:3.11, 95% CI: 2.30–4.20) and health care system-affiliated clinics (aOR:1.71, 95% CI: 1.11–2.64) had higher odds of lacking follow-up care compared with women in private physician practices. Similarly, women residing in areas with the highest unemployment had higher odds of lacking follow-up (aOR:1.48, 95% CI: 1.07–2.06). Delays in follow-up care were higher for women born in Central/South American countries compared with U.S.-born women (aOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.12–1.92). Conclusions. Improved outreach efforts and multilevel strategies are needed to address the persistent barriers to appropriate follow-up care for underserved women.