On the Croatian islands of Hvar and Brač, there is a diversified system of rivalry and animosity among island communities, defined by the term campanilism. It is based on stereotypes about inhabitants of neighbouring island localities or neighbouring islands and on the production of mocking collective nicknames. Anecdotes, jokes, proverbs and similar oral forms are used as a means of confirming characteristics attributed to certain communities. Nowadays their performance is mainly connected to sporting events, celebrations of patron saints’ days and school children’s disputes. Previously they were considered to be a form of exclusively intra-island knowledge. Islanders mostly found them insulting. However, some communities have decided to turn these stereotypes into brands, highlighting them in representations of local identities and in tourist promotion. In this paper we analyze the way in which certain stereotypes focusing on islanders’ flaws or virtues are used in contemporary identity strategies and the construction of local uniqueness.