The state examination system was extremely important in both the Yuan dynasty and the Koryŏ kingdom as a means to select men for official government positions. Recently discovered answer sheets from the period provide insight into problems confronting those societies, and the answers reveal both the erudition and the realism of the examination passers. The examinations sought men superior in literary culture, etiquette, and rhetoric, and those who excelled in knowledge of the Confucian Classics. They helped develop a common culture unifying Yuan China and Koryŏ Korea intellectually and culturally.