Effects of Increasing Distance of a One-on-One Paraprofessional on Student Engagement


This study sought to maintain task engagement of a 4-year-old student with developmental disabilities included in a pre-K classroom while decreasing reliance of one-on-one support from a paraprofessional. To accomplish these goals, a withdrawal design (A-B-A) with a nested changing-criterion design was used to withdraw paraprofessional proximity. A cue was provided to the paraprofessional as an indicator of when to engage with and withdraw proximity from the student. Momentary time sampling procedures were used to measure task engagement during group circle time and proximity between student and paraprofessional. Results showed that task engagement was maintained at a level comparable to peers without disabilities, while proximity less than 0.9 m from the student was reduced from 95% to 18% of intervals.