Most arguments about the causal import of legacies are often sketchy and incomplete, thus deserving of criticism (Holmes 1996). They are, however, based on obsolete and inadequate conceptualizations of culture and under-theorized models of cultural causation. Recent developments in the theory of culture provide better conceptual tools for examining legacy formation. Building on newer conceptualizations, Jan Kubik considers cultural legacies of state socialism as both “discourses about the past” (accessible through content analysis) proposed by contemporary cultural/political entrepreneurs and “syndromes of attitudes” (accessible through surveys) built upon actors’ past experiences. Significantly, the author examines not only the cultural legacies of communist/socialist cultural formations, but also the legacies of “anti-communism.” A hybrid of socialism-nationalism and the polarization(s) of the public discourse are singled out for closer inspection.