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126 letters in canada 2002 university of toronto quarterly, volume 73, number 1, winter 2003/4 Galician history B the methods of the Counter-Reformation that purged churchyards of the Orthodox dead and the activities of those nationalists who flirted with the Nazis or joined the SS. One might also question his characterization of Ukraine=s road to independence as >a remarkable success story.= The privations suffered by Galicians since independence hardly reflect triumph. Yet, though Magocsi writes with evident affection for his ancestral country, his commitment does not usually warp his judgment or diminish his tolerance of other points of view. The collection contains matter of real value, especially relating to social realities in the later nineteenth century when many educated Galicians hovered between cultural commitments and sometimes changed their minds about what being Ukrainian meant for them. Other nationalities went through the same formative uncertainties, but the usual tendency is to gloss over them. It is to Magocsi=s credit that he allows his readers to see how alternative tendencies espoused by the intelligentsia might have prevailed and how chance developments in the wider world might have led to a different outcome. Though nationalism flourishes as an area of research, one sees too few studies of this kind. (PHILIP LONGWORTH) Michael Behiels and Marcel Martel, editors. Nations, Ideas, Identities. Essays in Honour of Ramsay Cook Oxford University Press 2000. xix, 231. $32.95, $22.95 This festschrift pays homage to Ramsay Cook, whose long career, at the University of Toronto, York University, and recently with the Dictionary of Canadian Biography has spanned four decades and has touched the lives of numerous Canadian students. As a personal note, I remember his assistance to me when I was a, then, young doctoral student working at the, then, Dominion Archives. His support and advice continued long after, and I am sure hundreds could talk of analogous experiences. In the introduction, Michael Behiels sets Cook=s career against the nationalism and internationalism of the postwar years. >In Cook=s view, the most powerful ideological force shaping and reshaping Canada has been B and remains B nationalism.= Behiels also cites Cook=s 1966 comment that there has sometimes been too much nationalism for Canada=s own good. Certainly the forces of nationalism, French, English and Aboriginal, have shaped much of Cook=s writing. The organization of the volume does not adhere completely to this nationalist theme. There are subsections on nationalism and the Canadian question and a related one on culture. Other subsections are distinct, including those on ideas, women, and Native people. These areas do intrude on the theme of national identity, but, more important, their presence recognizes the wide-ranging interests of his many graduate humanities 127 university of toronto quarterly, volume 73, number 1, winter 2003/4 students. Some of Canada=s more important historians in these areas honed their skills under Ramsay Cook=s encouraging but critical supervision. As with most collections there are differences in the quality of individual contributions. Some pieces are insightful and rest upon significant new work. Others have a slightly unfinished or derivative feel. Overall, though, it is an interesting group of papers. For example, Ruth Compton Brouwer=s work on the clash of two women over the development of medical education in Korea resists clich├ęs or simplistic theories. Instead she studies two sincere and basically good people, one Canadian and one Korean, who nonetheless disagree over priorities. As she concludes, >I have also, I hope, demonstrated that there can be fruitful ways of exploring relationships between missionaries and non-Westerners that go beyond familiar themes of racism and resistance.= Norman Knowles assesses the impact of religion in the Crowsnest region in the early twentieth century. He emphasizes the importance of religion to the local community, not as part of some subtext of social control or worker resistance but on its own terms. Religion, he says, was important as religion. This article raises as many questions as it answers. In what way, for example, did religion serve the needs of the congregation? What specific messages made it relevant? Nonetheless, the approach is a fresh one and allows us to view community ties differently...


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