Disney did not have a monopoly on using animated folklore films for marketing purposes. During the heyday of Soviet animation in the 1970s and 1980s, cartoons that seemed to follow folktales were altered slightly to convey messages in keeping with Soviet ideology. They not only criticized capitalism, but also depicted women as sexless and self-sacrificing, and urged cooperation, neighborliness, and nonviolence. National minorities within the Soviet Union were portrayed as backward and in need of the guidance of Russia, the leading Soviet republic. Ukrainians, for example, were shown as cute and quaint, living in a bucolic land. Colorful clothing and tasty foods were attributed to them, as well as the ability to sing and dance. However, they were also seen as a people who believed in spirits and did not understand modern life. The fall of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence have not changed the situation, at least when it comes to animation produced in Russia. Folklore films still show Ukrainians as bucolic and musical. Women still sacrifice for the sake of others. Any animation critical of Russia, even if based on folklore, quickly disappears from the market.


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pp. 272-294
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