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Book Reviews153 On the spiritual interpretation of Scripture, the author cautiously limits his explanation to the context of the writings of the Church fathers, avoiding the broader and often more confused range of modern meanings. Essentially the sermons of Augustine reveal that the spiritual interpretation means just those insights given to the spiritual man by the Holy Spirit and the use of such insights for the instruction of individual Christians. In addition, the spiritual understanding and interpretation of Scripture includes the meaning of figurative, allegorical, and metaphorical passages ; the saint's reconciliation of apparent contradictions in Scripture and his own exegesis of historical passages in the Old Testament. Yet Augustine was always aware of the literal and historical nature of the text and never departs as radically from it as did some of his contemporaries. Philosophers and theologians will find this study of Augustine quite rewarding. A great convenience in the text are the frequent and excellent summaries at the conclusion of each chapter. Some readers may be disappointed that greater light was not thrown upon the epistemological problems in Augustine's philosophy and others (like myself) may have desired a closer study of the relation of mysticism and the insights of the "spiritual man." But I am sure that the author would concur with me that these are problems that would require additional dissertations. John A. Mourant Pennsylvania State University O'Donohoe, James A., Tridentine Seminary Legislation, Its Sources and Its Formation. Louvain, 1957. Pp. vi & 187. Father O'Donohoe says his purpose is "to investigate the sources of the Tridentine seminary legislation and to expose its gradual formation during the course of the sessions of the Council." (p. v.) This statement makes the content of this monograph seem more comprehensive than it is. Actually, Father O'Donohoe's primary, and nearly sole, interest is in the well-known decree formulated at the Council's 23rd session which called for the establishment of diocesan seminaries. Fr. O'Donohoe publishes the text of the Tridentine decree side by side with the text of the eleventh decree of the Legatine Synod sponsored by Cardinal Pole in 1556 to reform the English clergy (pp. 135—139). The texts of the two decrees are so closely parallel that there can be no doubt — if ever any existed — that the Counciliar Fathers borrowed liberally from the English cardinal. The author's convincing explanation as to how Pole's legislation came to the attention of the council is a measure of his diligent work with original source material (pp. 142—-145). Cardinal Pole and Claude Le Jay are, according to Fr. O'Donohoe, the principle progenitors of Tridentine legislation for seminaries. The role of Le Jay, however, is not so well documented as that of Pole. At the 5th session Le Jay certainly pointed out however well managed seminaries be, they are ineffectual if they are empty (p. 35, n. 14) ; but there is no reason to believe that he alone was aware of this deficiency. 154Book Reviews Since this doctoral dissertation was originally composed as a study in canon law, one would expect more frequent citation of the "fontes." Direct quotation of the regulations drawn up for the Germanicum, for example, would perhaps, have substantiated the assumption — valid, I believe — that Tridentine legislation reflects the organization found in the seminaries which flourished in the mid 16th century under the aegis of the Society of Jesus. Berard Marthaler, 0. F. M. Conv. Assumption Seminary Chaska, Minnesota ...


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