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CONCERNING THE CASE OF THE HERETICAL POPE: JOHN XXII AND THE QUESTION OF POVERTY MS. XXI OF THE CAPESTRANO CONVENT* In a brief article published some years ago in Archivum Franciscanum Historicum,1 Clement Schmitt summarized the basic information concerning the Defensorium contra errores Iohannis Papae, also known as the letter Veritatem sapientis. The "heretical" pope had been accused of ten errors concerning the question of the poverty of Christ and the apostles, errors that were later refuted on the basis of Sacred Scripture and patristic and legal authorities. In his article, Schmitt noted the urgency of a modern critical edition of the Defensorium,2 a text of fundamental importance, which still in the 15th century fueled the ideas of the Fraticelli, together with the "non moins efficace 'Decalogus evangelicae paupertatis'."3 Schmitt listed the known manuscripts, incorporating data cited by Marc Dykmans in his edition of the sermons of John XXII on the beatific vision.4 Four codices are listed: Brussels, 11437-40 This article was originally published as "Ancora sul caso del Papa erético: Giovanni ??? e la questione délia povertà/' Archivum Historiae Pontifkiae [Editrice Pontificia Université Gregoriana] 32 (1994): 329-341. Translation by Robert M. Stewart, O.F.M. 1C. Schmitt, "Le Defensorium contra errores Johannis Papae dans une version manuscrite de Bruxelles," Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 80 (1987): 466-471. I dedicate this study to Fr. Gedeon Gal, O.F.M. 2Schmitt, "Le Defensorium", 471: "Une nouvelle édition du texte soigneusement établie sur la base des manuscrits retrouvés et des éditions signalées, enrichie de références précises aux sources et confrontée avec les écrits similaires des maîtres enfuis a Munich et les répliques des théologiens du campe orthodoxe, serait évidemment souhaitable." 3Schmitt, "Le Defensorium." For the edition of the Decalogus, cf. M. Bihl, "Fraticelli cuiusdam Decalogus evangelicae paupertatis an. 1340-1342 conscriptus," Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 32 (1939): 279-411. 4Cf. M. Dykmans, Les sermons de Jean XXII sur la vision beatifique, Miscellanea Historiae Pontificae 34 (Rome, 1973): 218. The data offered by Dykmans are used by C. Schmitt, "Le Defensorium," 468-469. 167 Franciscan Studies (54) 1994-1997 168FELICE ACCROCCA, O.F.M. (catalog 2583), fols. lr-21r; Vat. Lat. 4128, fols. 192v-206r; Vat. Lut. 7316, fols. 282v-299v; and finally, ms. XXI of Capestrano which, according to Dykmans, preserves an "earlier version" already published in part by Öliger.5 1. The Capistrano manuscript and the Appellatio Monacensis This present study, based on the actual critical edition of the Defensorium and begun thanks to the impetus provided by Schmitt, has yielded different conclusions from those of Dykmans, who probably was not able to examine the codex personally. Schmitt, similarly unable to examine the codex himself, had trusted the work of Dykmans, as did others, and as I did initially. An early description of ms. XXI of Capestrano, rather brief and imprecise in some transcriptions, was offered by De Bartholomeis;6 a later description, also not without some imprecision, was offered by Chiappini.7 In the meantime, Öliger had studied the codex, of 5S. Dykmans, Les Sermons, 218. Oliger's claim to have published a fragment of the Defensorium from the version in the Capestrano ms. XXI was accepted also by Schmitt, "Le Defensorium" 468-469. ^Miscellanea Francescana V, 13. 7A. Chiappini, Reliquie letterarie capestranesi. Storia-codici-carte-documenti (L'Aquila, 1927): 71-74. Chiappini's description does not indicate that the codex contains a considerable number of ascetico-mystical writings—works of Peter John Olivi, even if these have been copied anonymously. These writings escaped Öliger who had identified some Olivi writings in another Capestrano manuscript, ms. XXVI: cf. L. Öliger, "Descriptio codicis Capistranensis continentis aliquot opuscula Fr. Petri Iohannis Olivi," Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 1 (1908): 617-622. It did not escape D. Pacetti, who in his Introduction to Petrus Ioannis Olivi O.F.M., Quaestiones quatuor De Domina, Biblioteca Franciscana Ascética Medii Aevi 8 (Quaracchi, 1954): 26 -29 , identified eight Olivi writings in the manuscript: De 14 gradibus amoris gratiosi, fols. 114r-115v; De conditionibus et proprietatibus amoris Dei, fols. 115v-116r (only this manuscript is reported, and Pacetti does not explain his basis for...


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