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356book reviews enment theology. This Hooke attempted by a "revitalized theology of reUgion" that distinguished him both from the conservative apologists and the antichristian Deists or Atheists. His major importance and contribution lay therefore in the domain oftheological method, its problematics, its typology. In the author's eyes this approach deserves to be taken seriously, despite the fact that the "Modernizer ways" Hooke opened were not followed in the aftermath of the French Revolution that destroyed the world in which they were developed. An important study, therefore, that might have been more forceful in its original state with a scholarly apparatus. The first part, particularly, suffers from a number of approximations, minor errors, and lack of references that, at times, make it dUficult to grasp the nuances of an admittedly complex historical and intellectual context. Some of the judgments and Interpretations could be disputed , as they must have been during the defense of the dissertation. A few recent works have been overlooked, among them Philippe Lefebvre's important Les Pouvoirs de laparole. L'Église etRousseau 1762-1848 (Paris, 1992). Jacques M. Gres-Gayer The Catholic University ofAmerica Late Modem European As One Sent. Peter Kenney SJ., 1 779-1841. His Mission in Ireland and North America. By Thomas Morrissey, SJ. (Washington, D.C: The CathoUc University of America Press; Blackrock, Co. Dublin: Four Courts Press. 1997. Pp. xii, 529. $54.95.) In his foreword Emmet Larkin welcomes this biography as worthy of the historical importance of its subject as a maker of the modern Irish church. Peter Kenney was a key figure Ui the early nineteenth-century reorganization of the Society ofJesus Ln Ireland and the United States. He was an outstanding orator. Archbishop Murray of Dublin declared that "the only other orator whom I ever thought of comparing him to was Daniel O'ConneU." He moved easUy among the movers and shakers of Irish Catholicism. Murray, Archbishop MacHale of Tuam,"J.K.L." Games Doyle of Kildare and Leighlin), and other bishops were his friends. He was the trusted adviser of Blessed Edmund Rice in the foundation of the Irish Christian Brothers, of Teresa Ball with the Loreto sisters, and of Mary Aikenhead with the Irish Sisters of Charity. He served as superior of the Irish Jesuit mission and later as provincial of the Irish vice-province. He was twice the Jesuit general's official visitor to the missions of Maryland and Missouri and helped put both on a firm footing. He dealt successfully with conflicts between "nativist"American-bornJesuits and the Europeans who had joined them. In Ireland he had been vice-president of Maynooth and he opened Clongowes Wood College. In America he helped set Georgetown CoUege on a steady course and was involved with the problems of getting permission to charge tuition at St. book reviews357 Louis University, contrary to then-standard Jesuit practice. Other issues were Jesuit slave holding and the growing controversy between proponents of an urban apostolate and those who wished to retain the emphasis on rural ministry characteristic of the Maryland mission since its foundation. Kenney was party to the overaU startup of the restored Jesuit order as one of the first novices in England, as a scholastic in SicUy, and as a delegate of the Irish Jesuits to meetings in Rome, where he died. On one occasion during his SicUian sojourn he accompanied a British naval cruiser on an abortive mission to rescue Pope Pius VII from Napoleon. AU these tales Morrissey has told weU in a readable and valuable book. James Hennesey, SJ. Christ the King Seminary EastAurora, New York 'By WhoseAuthority?'Newman, Manning and the Magisterium. Edited by V Alan McCleUand. (Bath: Downside Abbey Press. 1996. Pp. x, 290. $44.00.) This collection consists of fourteen essays by eight weU-known scholars of nineteenth-century religious history in Great Britain. A couple of the essays are very similar to work previously published, and two of the essays are about lesser-known Tractarians, Robert Wilberforce and T. W AUies. Thus, the title of this volume is a bit misleading, especiaUy since the theme of magisterium is scarcely evident in several of the essays. Manning,WUberforce, andAUies came into the Church...


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