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book reviews363 on trains, as well as the nature of the countryside through which they passed. However, little new information about railroading is provided. These travelers elucidated rather than investigated. Charles H. Clark Harrisburg Area Community College Antebellum Pensacola and the Military Presence. By Ernest F. Dibble. (Pensacola: Mayes Printing Company, 1974. Pp. 143.) In recent years, many historical studies have been published which attempt to trace the development of cities, towns and villages so that the urban problems of today can better be understood. Although it is unlikely that Professor Dibble prepared his book to be such a study, it could easily serve that purpose. Antebellum Pensacola is one of the few communities in the United States, if not the only one, which was almost totally dependent on the military, both Navy and Army, for its existence. The military planned part of the town, employed most of the inhabitants, and purchased a large amount of the local products. Regrettably, this subject is discussed all too briefly in the book. A short book, it is a combination narrative and documentary presentation of six aspects of antebellum Pensacola history. Some of the subjects, especially the use of slave labor by the military and the Army career of William H. Chase, are quite interesting but are not treated in enough detail to be worthwhile. The documentary sections of the book include transcripts of letters, reports, memoranda, tracts and excerpts from formerly published works. These documents are meant to better illustrate the subjects discussed in the narrative portions of the book. Some are of value but one can not help wondering"if this work would not have been better had it been a totally narrative history using only the significant passages from the documents where necessary. Dibble's strongpoints are his "Chronology of Antebellum Pensacola " and the "Essay on Sources." Unfortunately, many deficiencies are recognizable, including the lack of an index, numerous typographical errors and poor quality reproductions of the illustrations . Regardless of the criticisms given, the book does have value. No doubt, a good narrative history of Antebellum Pensacola and its relationship with the military is still needed, but Dibble's work is a fine beginning. Also, Antebellum Pensacola and the Military Presence is only one volume in The Pensacola Series Commemorating the American Revolution. Perhaps as more volumes in the 364CIVIL WAR HISTORY series are published, other facets of antebellum Pensacola military history will be discussed. Dale E. Floyd National Archives Symbol, Sword, and Shield: Defending Washington during the Civil War. By Benjamin Franklin Cooling. (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1975. Pp. 300. $12.50.) During the Civil War both Washington and Richmond were frontline capitals. And in both cases their locations and security were to play major roles in strategic considerations. As early as the secession crisis, fears were raised over the safety of Washington. These fears, fed by rumors of a possible coup, the rioting in Baltimore on April 19 which almost isolated the capital, and the Union defeat at Bull Run, sharpened this concern. Quite early the construction of a rudimentary defense system was undertaken on the Virginia side of the Potomac River, but it was with the Union defeat at Bull Run and the arrival of McClellan in the capital that the planning and construction of the defenses were accelerated under the direction of Major John G. Barnard. Vast sums of money were expended on this project and by late 1862 Washington had become a fortress. For the remainder of the war the ring of forts and entrenchments surrounding the city continually underwent improvement and refinement. Yet Washington's greatest defense lay with the federal armies operating in the Maryland-Virginia theater. The capital's defense system was to be the shield, while the Union army became the sword to strike the Confederacy. But in the planning and carrying out of the military campaigns against the South the security of the capital was always a factor that had to be taken into account. In 1862 McClellan's Peninsular campaign tragically involved endless misunderstandings and a numbers-game between the general and the administration. Confederates were also aware of this sensitivity and made use of it in Jackson's...


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