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the photolyte, liberates one molecule ofO2 per quantum absorbed. This evolution ofO2 with a quantum requirement of one proves the importance of the photolyte. Chlorella cells capable ofperforming over-all photosynthesis with a quantum requirement ofabout 4 per O2 evolved, form the photolyte in the dark from CO2 and O2, building it up to a level equivalent to the glutamate andchlorophyll concentration.The efficiency ofover-all photosynthesis is dependent on the concentration level at which cells can maintain the photolyte. The mechanisticpicture that emerges from thesefacts, as unforced as the gentle rain from heaven, is that the photon which is used to perform photosynthesis must be absorbed by a preformed chlorophyll complex which contains the reaction components necessary for formation of O2 and reduced carbon. The experiments on the photolyte merge with the early quantum requirement measurements and the demonstration ofthe one-quantum reaction to give a continuum ofinternally consistent facts, one ofthe most beautiful and notable achievements in the history ofcellphysiology. Such experiments are the important and lasting part ofbiological research. About twenty ofthe papers in this book are previously unpublished, unavailable elsewhere . And there has been a liberal addition offootnotes to the reprinted publications to bring the reader up to date about Warburg's present views. Those wishing further examples of Warburg's well-known rapier wit can seek these in the footnotes and the references. Collectors ofsuch willnot be disappointed. But it is not forjustthe unpublished material that one wants to own this book. Though it is easy to read about the interpretations ofexperiments, it takes more time and effort to grasp the nature and detail ofthe experiments themselves. New Methods of Cell Physiology will not soon go out of date; it requires and repays very careful study. Birgit Vennesland The University ofChicago A History ofAmerican Pathology. By Esmond R. Long, M.D., Ph.D. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas, 1962. Pp. xiv+460. $12.50. This book is more than a historical record ofAmerican pathology; it is, in addition, a review of trends in pathology, their significance, and reasons for their development. In short, the author's purpose has been to put into perspective the contributions ofAmerican pathologists to medicine. Although many earlier contributions are described, detailed consideration begins with the last quarter of the nineteenth century, when American pathology began to assume a "professional status" under the influence ofDoctors William H. Welch, Francis Delafield, and T. Mitchell Prudden. It was the influence ofthese three men and their students that expanded American pathology, and Dr. Long has given an exceptionally interesting account oftheir contributions. Besides descriptions of the work of individual pathologists, valuable information is given concerning the development and activities of the societies and journals devoted primarilyto pathology. Without theseagencies growth ofthe scientific study ofpathology Book Reviews Perspectives in Biology and Medicine ยท Spring 1963 would have been severely restricted. Along with the accounts ofdie many contributions to general and special pathology, the author has also recorded achievements in forensic and comparative pathology and in veterinary and dental pathology. Aside from the difficulties in locating proper source materials, recording the earlier historical phases ofAmerican pathology was relatively uncomplicated. The author's task became more formidable and complex when directed to the problems relating to the growth ofpathology during the past quarter-century. Two developments ofthis period are especially noteworthy: (i) phenomenal acceleration ofactivity in the areas ofclinical pathology; and (2) entrance ofthe federal government into many fields ofmedical research and development. Illustrative ofthe first is the tremendous expansion of hospital and diagnostic facilities, thereby making increasingly urgent the pressing needs for pathologistsskilled insurgicalpathology, exfoliativecytology, managementofblood banks, diagnostic laboratories, etc. Without large numbers ofpathologists adequately trained in these disciplines, the practice ofmodern medicine would obviously be impossible. With reference to the second development, the vast expansions ofresearch and training facilities by various governmental agencies have led to today's penetrations into hitherto obscure areas ofpathology through the mechanisms ofhistochemistry, electronmicroscopy, isotopie tracers, and newer instruments and methods ofprecision. In consequence, pathologists are now delving more deeply into phases of tissue-change currently referred to as "molecular pathology." In all these areas Dr. Long has, with great industry, recorded the past and present activiries ofmany menand women who...


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