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BOOK REVIEWS117 two important ingredients of Korean culture. The discussion of Korean art is stimulating but frustrating; the listener needs to view the art as it is being described . This weakness disappears when the discussants turn to music. Here the entire series reaches its peak. The listener can hear a sound discussion of Korean music accompanied by specific examples that are both lively and entertaining. The final tape is somewhat repetitious. Dr. Hesung Chon Koh, a sociologist , reads a paper on the characteristics of Korean art. Although one might wonder what a sociologist is doing discussing Korean art, Koh's characteristic grace and charm dispels all doubt. Her paper is critiqued by both a sinologist and a scholar of Japan, each admitting Korean art is unique in its spontaneity and innovation. Although this last presentation is insightful, it again begs the question as to the advantages of audio learning over other techniques. Obviously there are areas where cassette tapes meet a real need. A discussion of music fits the medium perfectly. However audio learning is not always superior to visual presentations or the traditional manuscript. When there is a discussion of art, the listener must see the work. When dialogue focuses on complex subjects and when papers are read, audio cassettes offer no improvement over a written text. Audio Learning deserves appreciation for its effort to put Korean material on tape. But the results are mixed. Audio Learning triumphed in its musical presentations, and although it also met a degree of success in recording the ideas of various individuals closely involved with contemporary Korea and Korean culture, the series as a whole has little to offer specialists. Regrettably its value to the student and general public is also limited. Edward J. Shultz West Oahu College, Hawaii Lumière sur la Corée: les 103 martyrs [Light Over Korea: The 103 Martyrsl , by Missions Etrangères de Paris. Paris: Fayard, 1984. 252 pp. 69.00 FF. The publication of this book was planned to coincide with the bicentennial of the establishment of Christianity in Korea, an anniversary marked also by the canonization, in May 1984, of 103 martyrs—93 of them Korean. The book consists of five main sections, each one written by a different person. The authors, whose names appear only in the table of contents, are presumably all associated with the Paris Foreign Missions. Sections I and II, written by J.-M. Bosc and J. Vérinaud respectively, comprise the major portion of the book (179 pp.) and are best discussed together since they describe the sequence of events leading to the eventual Christianization of Korea. The first of these events dates back to 1592, the year of the Japanese invasion of Korea. Some of the soldiers were Christians, and these were thus the first Christians to set foot on Korean soil, but since they entered the country as enemies, they had no religious impact on the Korean population—with the exception of the prisoners brought back to Japan. The actual introduction of Christian 118BOOK REVIEWS doctrines into Korea is attributed to members of the Korean embassy who traveled to Peking once a year to pay tribute to the emperor of China. During these visits, the diplomats and their staff came into contact with Chinese converts and European Jesuits who supplied them with Christian literature in Chinese. These books were widely read by Korean scholars. In 1784 Yi Seung-Hoon, son of a Korean ambassador, was baptized in Peking; upon returning to Korea, he went on to baptize two of his compatriots. This marked the birth of Christianity in Korea. From this point on, two themes dominate the early history of the Korean church: first, the persistent efforts to smuggle priests into the country, and second, the long series of bloody governmental repressions, which did not end officially until 1881. From the outset, Christians were considered a subversive force, a foreign menace jeopardizing the very foundation of Confucian Korea. As a general rule, foreigners were not allowed into the country, and thus it was very difficult for priests, particularly those from Europe, to cross over the border. Two Chinese priests were the first to succeed in this attempt, arriving...


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