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156BCom, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Summer 1989) disease with the names Polilla-Canaqui by which the servant is variously known. She suggests a possible metaphorical relation between Carlos and Apollo and, therefore, a connection between the gracioso and the shepherd Syphilis, in Fracastor's poem, who had been punished with the dreaded disease for daring to insult the Sun god. In the first of her four essays Prof. Exum discusses the role of four graciosos as directors of the action, paying particular attention to their disguises and roleplaying . In this function, they are not only directors of minidramas but also commentators on the actions of others. By establishing a special relation between the audience and themselves, they make it possible for the spectators to participate actively in the development of the plays. In the other essays, Prof. Exum denies the centrality of the image of the breva for the theme of El desdén con el desdén, uncovers the resemblance of the structure of Yo por vos, y vos por otro to a dance, the quadrille, and discusses the parodie intent of role-reversal in De fuera vendrá. In the epilogue to the book, Bruce Wardropper reviews the question of secularization of the comedia by Moreto and, while taking graciously the criticism by Francisco Rico, insists on his earlier formulation, with the modification that it is the spirit of Carnival that determines the nature of the play. Frank P. Casa University of Michigan Lope de Rueda. The Interludes (Los Pasos). Randall W. Listerman, translator. Ottawa: Dovehouse Editions, 1988. Paper. 118 pp. This is the first English translation of the complete Pasos of Lope de Rueda—the seven published in El Deleitoso (1567), and the other six contained in the Registro de representantes (1570) . Rueda's Pasos depend almost entirely on verbal humor, which is notoriously one of the hardest things to translate. As if this were not enough to discourage any potential translator, the Pasos are written in a fast-paced, telegraphic slang, replete with archaic regionalisms and colloquialisms , many of which scholars have not yet succeeded in elucidating satisfactorily. Randall Listerman has risen to the challenge admirably, recreating in twentieth-century "street language" a surprisingly close equivalent to Rueda's racy sixteenth-century dialogue and managing to make the modern version just as witty and entertaining as the original. A literally exact translation of the Pasos would of course have resulted in unperformable, barbarous English. Listerman has instead paraphrased the Spanish, maintaining the original tone as closely as Reviews157 possible. A good example is Martin's speech to the doctor in the second Paso, popularly known by Moratin's title "Cornudo y contento": "I couldn't move. I felt like death warmed over and still gotta pain right here in the gut. I've felt terrible all day. Just awhile ago, cousin came in and said 'Holy Toledo you look like the purge itself!' " ["...que como no me podía menear del dolor quen estos hijares sentía, díxome su primo: andad mal punto, que sois hombre sin coracón: de una negra purguilla estáis que no parescéis sino buho serenado."] (p. 48). There is something delightfully zany about having a sixteenth-century Spaniard use the expression "Holy Toledo." I often got the feeling while reading this translation that these were just the words Lope de Rueda would have chosen if he were writing the Pasos today; and surely that is as good a test of a translation as any. The brief introduction adds nothing new to our knowledge of Lope de Rueda's life or understanding of his work, but it will enable the non-specialized reader to place Rueda in the context of the early history of Spanish theater. This book could have been greatly improved by more careful editing. The punctuation (or lack of it) is arbitrary and eccentric. Listerman seems to have followed the rule: when in doubt, don't punctuate. This is annoying and sometimes leads to minor confusion. For example, the phrase "Oh dear Alameda" could mean "Oh, dear Alameda" or "Oh dear, Alameda," (p. 42) and there are literally dozens of other similar cases. Listerman has chosen to...


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