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<*7. BIBLIOGRAPHY, NEWS, AND NOTES E. M. PORSTER Annotated by Frederick P. W, McDowell Space did not permit listing the following items about E. M Förster in Volume 9: 4 (I966), Professor McDowell is compiling other Items we have for various reasons omitted from previous listings so that by the end of this year we will have listed very nearly everything that has been published on Förster to date. Austin, Edgar A. "Rites of Passage in A Passage to India," Orient/ West. IX: 3 (1964), 64-72. The plot is built around Adela's experience in the Cave, but it is Mrs. Moore's experience which arrests the reader and holds the meaning of the book. EMF was influenced by the Cambridge anthropologists who were important at the turn of the century when EMF was at Cambridge. The term "passage" refers to rites de passage. The events in the Marabar serve "as signs of 'passage,· of Initiation, of a ritualistic death and rebirth without which actual death cannot be a spiritual promotion." The echo In the cave parallels the noise of initiation ceremonies, and the cave Is like a monster-hut where initiations take place. In the Caves Mrs. Moore Is made ready for the propitiatory act she subsequently performs, that of expiatory death. She dies that Aziz might live. As a result of her preparations for the ritual expiation, she loses her former values and identity; yet as an expiatory Influence she has only a limited influence. For a truly significant passage to have occurred, the steps in Mrs. Moore's are Inadequate« "Birth and Death are suffered without love and without volition. Rebirth is aborted. The ways of thought and action that it should have combatted— dissension, the inability to love or to communicate—go on as before." Feels, however, that the book does not end in pessimism and disillusionment. The tone of "Temple" is triumphant, but "Temple" celebrates muddle rather than salvation. By implication EMF rejects the saving aspect of all gods or human beings who become as gods, because being powerful they cannot love their inferiors. The cave experience is the death of everything, and the new life that comes from it is "stillborn." But the surge upward from the echo is all important, the release made possible through accepting it. Bell, Quentin (ed). JulIan Bellt Essays. Poems and Letters. with contributions by J. M. Keynes, David Garnett, Charles Mauron, C. Day Lewis, E. M. Forster. Londt Hogarth P, 1938. Pp. 9, M, 233. 236, 237. 238, 240, 241, 242, 245, 248, 253, 256, 304, 320, 324, 335, 336, 339, 31H, 390-92. Many Incidental refs to EMF In accounts of Julian Bell's Bloomsbury connections. Mauron (p. 253) Indicates a will to power In Bell that led him to reject the "democratic epicureanism" of EMF and other twentiethcentury liberals. In a letter (p. 304) Bell sees his relationship to Roger Fry In the same terms as those EMF used to describe his relationship to Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, that of disciple to a Socrates figure. In "War and Peacet A Letter to E. M. Foster," Bell praises many of EMF's qualities: "tolerance, reasonableness, charity; a olear and deep conviction of the value 48. of certain states of mind; a readiness to listen to opponents and a sympathy for the young." While Bell appreciates these qualities, he feels that they are Inadequate to cope with the power struggle, characteristic of modern politics. In "Notes for a Reply" (pp. 391-92) EMF defends his liberalism and notes the contradictory elements In Bell's letter: a conviction that men are evil or at least Indifferent to evil; and a need to save them through Marxism. [See Frederick Grubb and Peter Stansky, below.1 Bowen, Elizabeth. "Alexandria," Seven Winters and Afterthoughts. NY: Knopf. 1962. Pp. 223-27; rpt of rev Tlëporter) of 1961 ed of Alexandria. EMF has distilled the evasive personality of this city Into his pages. The city never knerw a period of Infancy, but sprang Into existence "Immediate, adult, and dazzling." The autumnal civilization of the city-state was confronted by the vigorous springtide of the Christian faith, and Its pagan presuppositions were then challenged. Out of the conflict Christianity emerged as an Intellectual force. EMF has encompassed his difficult subject by means of art and a touch of sixth sense. His ability to discuss abstract ideas, his dramatic sense, his Irony, his passion for exactitude, and his love of color are all revealed In Alexandria. Bradbury, Malcolm (ed). Förster: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrentIce-Hall, I966. Contains "Introduction," by Malcolm Bradbury; "A Passage to Forster: Reflections on a Novelist," by I. A. Richards; "The Novels of E. M. Forster," by Peter Burra; "E. M. Forster," by F. R. Leavls; "E. M. Forster," by Austin Warren; "E. M. Forster," by D. S. Savage; "Forster and the Liberal Imagination," by Lionel Trilling; "Notes on the Uses of Coincidence In the Novels of E. M. Forster," by Hyatt Howe Waggoner; "Mr. E. M. Forster as a Symbolist," by Frank Kermode; "E. M. Forster's Comic Spirit," by Frederick C. Crews; "Forster's Humanism and the Nineteenth Century,"-by H. A. Smith; "Imagination and Moral Theme In E. M. Forster's The Longest Journey." by John Harvey; "Howards End." by Malcolm Bradbury; "Rhythm In E. M. Forster's A Passage to India." by E. K. Brown; "Passage to More Than India," by Benita Pärry. [See also McDowell, F. P. W., "E. M. Förster: Recent Extended Studies," ELT, IX: 3 (I966), I56-68, and entries below under Bradbury, Malcolm; Smith, H. A.; and Parry, Benita. "1 ....... "Introduction," Forster: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed Malcolm Bradbury. Twentieth Century VTowsT Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall. I966. Pp. 1-14; rptd and enlgd from "A Short Guide to Forster Studies," Critical Survey, II (Summer 1965), 113-16. An illuminating general survey of EMF*s literary reputation and of tendencies In recent EMF criticism. His work has recently seemed more complex and modern than previously; recent critics have now seen the complexity and resource of his fictional method. Most recent critics have focused on EMF's rhythms and symbols; the danger is that we may now forget the comic social novelist. Too often EMF has been regarded as a child of Victorian liberalism; but his traditional romantic and political liberalism recognizes and confronts an essentially modern disquiet. In Howards End. EMF records this disquiet In hie Intellectuals . He Is only partly the Edwardian liberal humanist, since he Is also "criticizing Benthamite organization from tu:. point, of view of the need for diverse Individualism, and crlt' clzlng the Indulgences of Individualism with a deep commitment to the demands of the 'unseen*â– which challenges his classical rationalism. His visions, If they Imply unity, also embrace anarchy and imply an incomplete redemption. He has affiliations with the Bloomsbury philosophy of personal relationships and aesthetics based on a personal vision, but his attachment is also critical. His complexity and ambiguity lead him into uncertainties of tone, archness, and a damaging variety of intentions , qualities difficult for critics to assimilate and assess. To the extent that a modern chaos permits, his visionary qualities enable him to achieve harmony and a full sense of life In Howards End and Passage. EMF combines experimentellem and symbolism with an enlarging of the English tradition of the soclo-moral novel. Early critics of EMF, such as F. R. Leavls and Virginia Woolf, noted the split between a poetic mysticism and a social realism. American critics hav« been largely concerned with the first aspect of Forster ar.d English critics with the second. [Bradbury surveys EMF's principal critics since I. A. Richards' essay of I927. For contents of the vol see the entry above."! Enrlght, D. J. "Tc the Lighthouse or to India," The Apothecary's Shop: Essays on Literature. Lond: Seeker & Warburg, 1957. Pp. 168-86. Virginia Woolf s approach to personal relationships is excessively direct, but 2MF*s Is less so. Woolf strains after significance, and the stream of consciousness method sometimes simplifies her materials. EMF's purposes are less Idiosyncratic. Passage Is a tightly constructed novel and has for subject public as well as personal relationships. Takes issue with Trilling's Judgment that Passage is "comfortable" and "conventional" and is the least "surprising," "capricious," and "personal" of the novels. EMF's omnipresent sense of moral subtlety Is revealed in the caves disaster which hinges on the length of Godbole's prayer. If power corrupts the Anglo-Indians, servitude corrupts Dr. LaI and Injustice corrupts Aziz. If Aziz's heart guides him in personal relationships , it also proves in part to be a fallacious guide when he suspects Fielding of having married Adela. The great character is India herself. The result is that the human characters dwindle against India as a "vast amorphous Anti-Character—and dwindle Ir the direction of types or even caricatures." The ending of Fassage reveals "Forster at his best and finest—neither cynic nor sentimentalist, one who believes In love, but doubts whether it will ever quite drive out fear and hatred." Friedman, Alan. "E. M. Forster: Not Expansion but Completion," The Turn of the Novel. NY: Oxford U P1 I966. Pp. 28, 29, 106-T59. Friedman defines the formal element in fiction as the "stream of conscience," the self confronting the world outside It. In the 19th and 20th century novel there has been a movement away from the closed to the open form. In the first, the stream of conscience is formally contained; in the second, it is not so contained. EMt*s novels exemplify the open form, wherein "expansion, not completion" is the rule. Characteristically in an EMF novel we have an expansion of experience, followed by a tapering; from that point, an expansion and an opening out again develops. In 50. Room the characters are pushed from rooms to views, from the life led according to conventions to the expression of desire, from English viewpoints to Italian vistas. In Angels a marriage with Glno would have been as constricting for Caroline Abbott as it was for Lilla Herrlton. Both Caroline and Philip Herrlton undergo an expansion of conscience, of moral apprehension and emotional grasp. The sense of life ahead made more difficult by expanded awareness Is greater than in Room. In Passage EMF's Insistence on an open flow of conscience also organizes his material. Mrs. Moore's experience Is expansive as Is Adela Quested's at the trial and after. The movement Is from separation to mutual friendship which reaches its consummation under the stars on the roof of Aziz's house the night of the day of the trial. Countercurrents of suspicion undermine the relationship and contract It. In "Temple" the relationship again opens out, with Mrs. Moore acting as a hidden catalyst. Goldman, Mark. "Virginia Woolf and E. M. Forster: A Critical Dialogue," Texas Studies In Literature and Language. VII (Winter I966), 387400 . Mrs. Woolf felt the need to break with the Edwardian past In order to capture the Georgian sensibility and reality and criticized EMF for trying to capture the Georgian sensibility without abandoning the Edwardian form. In "The Novels of E. M. Forster," she finds EMF torn between Edwardian fact and Georgian vision. As a novelist of Ideas his balancing of attitudes is crucial; but he works from the outside In. Mrs. Woolf's balancing Is formal or aesthetic; her points of view are discovered from the inside, and they irradiate from a subjective center. EMF is too conscious of human comedy, too much the novelist of ideas, too Involved in the liberal tradition to commit himself to the novel of sensibility. EMF's essays on Virginia Woolf celebrate the beauty of her poetry, but feel that life sometimes eludes her in her fiction. EMF feels that the poetic method may fall to achieve for the novel its characteristic, traditional reality. In "The Art of Fiction" (1927) Mrs. Woolf asserts that EMF Judges narrative art from the humane rather than the aesthetic point of view, and she feels EMF is disloyal to the art of fiction. In EMF's later essays, such as "Anonymity" and "Art for Art's Sake," he approaches more nearly the aesthetic view of art. EMF has also more reservations about the value of criticism as a discipline and as a help to the artist than do Clive Bell, Roger Fry, or Virginia Woolf (see EMF's "Raison d'etre of Criticism in the Arts"). [A carefully thought-out essay. See article by McDowell below. ~] Greene, George. "The Wars of Wyndham Lewis," Commonweal, LXXX (8 May 1964), 195-97. A rev-art centering upon W. K. Rose (ed), The Letters of Wyndham Lewis. Assesses Lewis's weaknesses and achievements . Finds in Lewis (as In work of EMF and Aldous Huxley) the tendency to resort to abstractions In place of dramatized characters and situations. Grelff, Louis K. "E. M. Forster—A Bibliography," Bulletin of Bibliography . XXIV (Sept-Dec 1964), 108-12. Maintains this is an exhaustive listing, but B. J. Kirkpatrlck's A Bibliography of E. JM. Forster [see below] exposes the lack of lncluslveness and the errors in this listing. Only detalle of Interest are those connected with the Canadian publication of EMF's works, material 51. not found elsewhere. [This bib Is careless and inconsistent and It ought never have been published in its present form.] Grubb, Frederick. A Vision of Reality: A Study of Liberalism in Twentieth-Century Verse. NY: Barnes & Noble, 1965. Pp. 14", 5^6, ¿7, 74, 82, 83. 128, 147, 151. I65, I66, 167-70, 217n, 222, 228, 241. The section "In But Not Of: E. M. Foster, Julian Bell, and the Liberal Critique" contains extended discussion of EMF, regarded as the moral center of this book on poetry, since his thought touches poetry and since the inner lives of his characters have their poetic aspects. EKF closely allied to Bloomsbury by his intellectual interests but considerably apart from it in his emotional and instinctual emphases. Julian Bell felt that his predecessors In Bloomsbury altered conventions rather than radically challenged them. Bell addresses EMF when he rejects the pacifistic and permissive aspect of Bloomsbury since EMF was more activist than Bloomsbury In general. Bell's values, moreover, were EMF's, especially the need to connect the prose and the passion of life. EMF's own heroes are reluctant rather than dynamic; and Fielding Is their type "a picaresque hero positive for our time" who possesses both detachment and sympathetic concern. EMF Judges his characters by his own ideas of what civilization should be; and his Judgments are pertinent since our difficulties have much In common with those experienced by his Edwardian characters. As artist EMF has recourse to music to give him symmetry of design; and one measure of his strength is that he does not dissolve the informative Into the sensational modes. Bell rejects the dogma of the I930 Leftist but feels that the cultivated middle-class-Bloomsbury —is too removed from action and social interest. He recognizes that the literati must define standards of taste and right values. This is not a democratic procedure, but it must be connected with efforts to persuade the masses to practice "rational behavior." In his Letter to EMF (rptd in Julian Bell: Essays. Poems, and Letters, ed. Quentin Bell, 1938),"BeTT-defines his activist views and feels that Förster himself may be too passive. [See also Quentin Bell, above¿ and Peter Stansky below.] [An excessively abstract and difficult essay.1 Hagopian, John 0. "Eternal Moments In the Short Fiction of'E. M. Förster," College English. XXVII (Dec I965), 209-14. Confines his discussion to "the realistic psycho-moral narratives," "The Road from Colonus," and "The Eternal Moment" (incorrectly dated 1928). "The Road from Colonus" is related to Sophocles* Oedipus at Colonus. but EMF's use of from In title is significant, since tKe story "leads away from the willing submission to death that transfigured the aged and deposed king of Thebes into the genius loci of a foreign place. Mr. Lucas at Plataniste, far from his native England, also feels that he may have found his apotheosis, but he is robbed of his transfiguration by the stout common sense of his mock-Antigone of a daughter and her crass friend Arthur Graham." In the two stories EMF shows the contrast between English and Mediterranean cultures. The conflict Is embodied with greater authority in "The Eternal Moment" than in "The Road from Colonus." Both stories also embody a subjective philosophy of time. Finds in "The Eternal Moment" these ambiguous questions: (1) Are Miss Raby's guilt and gestures of atonement noblef (2) Is 52. Colonel Leyland correct in thinking Miss Raby's conduct unbecoming highhanded, and silly? Hagoplan answers "No" to the first question and "Yes" to the second. Concludes with an illuminating discussion of the scenic symbolism of the tale; especially revealing Is Miss Raby's identification with the Cumaean Sybil in the fresco at the Hotel Bisclone. The central characters in the stories "present not the permanent victory of the race over cruelty and chaos, but rather—as In his great novels— the pathetic defeat of characters who aspire to his notion of salntliness." Hagoplan, John V., and Martin Dolch (eds). Insight II: Analysis of Modern British Literature. Frankfurt am Main: HirschgrabenVerlag , 1964. Pp. 117-40. Account of EMF's career, followed by analyses of "The Road from Colonus" and "The Eternal Moment," by John V. Hagoplan, [substantially as they appear in the article abstracted above]. Some paragraphs of added background material are present in the book version of this article. Stimulating analysis of Howards End by Hagoplan and Dolch, going counter to the general view of the novel as a comedy (with sinister and tragic overtones) ending In some sort of reconciliation. Rather, the novel Is pessimistic; no "connection" Is made at the end. The First Movement, "Margaret Was Left Alone," begins with the Schlegels at Queen's Hall listening to the Beethoven Fifth Symphony and ends with Mrs. Wilcox's death and the burning of her will by the members of her family. Margaret's relations with Mrs. Wilcox are analyzed, and her failure to achieve any true connection with Howards End and the Wilcoxes Is stressed. The Second Movement, "Her First Real Love Scene," discusses Margaret's awakening romantic Interest In Henry Wilcox and Helen's opposition to Margaret's engagement. Margaret's desire to connect the "prose" and the "passion" of life in her marriage to Henry is the dominant motif. In Third Movement, "But She Failed," the starting point is Margaret's sermon with its injunction, "Only connect;" The movement demonstrates in detail the defeat of Margaret's aspirations and her Inability to realize them In her marriage with Henry Wilcox. Hampshire, Stuart. "Two Cheers for Mr. Förster," New York Review of Books,12 May 1966, pp. 14-16. Ostensibly a rev of Wilfred Stone's The Cave and the Mountain: .A Study of E. M. Förster. Sees EMF divided in his work between two attitudes: an inherited liberalism (which stresses the authority of individual conscience and sensitiveness and lucidity In personal relations within the setting of a civilized private life) and the natural order (which is sublime , unknown, unlimited, and not well adapted to our powers of understanding). Art is the means of bridging the "upper" and "lower" consciousness. In his earlier work EMF had stressed values of inner truthfulness and lucidity of feeling and had Implied that self-knowledge was possible. By the time of Journey and Howards End, he suggests, by the texture of his prose, the lncompleteness of these values. The presence of such doubt In EMF's work places him In the modern movement; he is the link between the nineteenth century novel and the modern novel, which is generally broader in its framework and implications and less given to the methods of rational analysis. In Passage EMF's vision is perfectly 53. realized; and Indian art and thought vindicate his distrust of liberal humanism. The characters in the novel, British and Indian, achieve identity as they are seen against the backgrounds of India and its monuments wherein reside intimations of a reality that eludes the Intellect. Hannah, Donald. "The Limitations of Liberalism in E. M. Forster's Work," English Miscellany, XIII (I962), 165-78. To what extent does EMF's personality dwarf the novels in which it appears? Howards End, in its pretensions and failures, indicates where the achievement of Passage resides. Feels that the values apparently defined, substantiated, and Integrated Into Howards End are often only asserted by the author. The characters and the plot are contrived, so that they cannot bear the Importance explicitly attributed to them. EMF asserts that the Wilcoxes are Indispensable to a revivified England, but his adverse criticism of them destroys his advocacy; and he praises the Schlegels excessively. The characters refuse to come alive and transcend the formulas they represent. The dialectical structure of the novel results In an "abdication of Judgment and standards of values." In Passage the issue is faced squarely in all its magnitude and complexity. There is no simplification, nor easy solution of the problem nor indeed any solution. Mastery in style, a firm balancing of the comic and the tragic, and sureness of characterization prevail In Passage. EMF sees the shortcomings as well as the virtues of the liberal characters. Fielding and Adela; and Mrs. Moore is a capricious old woman after the Caves as well as a redemptive character. The Wilcoxes are truly seen In Passage as the insensitive Anglo-Indians. The commentator is in the background,and contrivance is absent: the characters and events develop naturally and organically. "If the major defects of Howards End spring from an insufficient awareness of the limitations of liberalism, the greatness of A Passage to India originates from a clear perception of them." Howards End is important as a necessary and Inevitable stage in EMF's progress to the writing of Passage. Hardy, Barbara. "Dogmatic Form: Defoe, Charlotte Bronte, Thomas Hardy, and E. M. Forster," The Appropriate Form: An Essay on the Novel. Lond: University of London P, 1964. Pp. 50-82. These writers suffer because of their use of "dogmatic form": An oversimplified belief "which excluded much of the varied causality to be found In life, which is metaphysical in character and has precise moral consequences." Recognizes that some of EMF's conclusions are tentative , but holds that they are still too definite for the freedom that should characterize the writer's vision. In Angels the renunciations are symbolic acts rather than human demonstrations. In Journey and Howards End, plausible action and psychology are again subordinated to ideological pattern. Finds that Ruth Wilcox is an arbitrary figure, dependent too greatly upon symbolism and fantastic machinery to be an effective moral agent. With Mrs. Moore in Passage EMF "creates a character who. . .depends on symbolic stature and fantastic action but whose virtues are properly enacted, so that we respond not to an Idea but to an individual portrait." Her respect for other creatures means that she can embody the value of love. Finds the novel essentially (and programatlcally ) optimistic. The anti-visions of Mrs. Moore and 5*. Adela In the cave are supplanted by Mrs. Moore's positive views on India when she leaves it and by Adela's recantation. Hardy finds the miracle-working Mrs. Moore too dependent on EMF's use of fantasy; this aspect of Mrs. Moore Is incommensurate with what EMF has to say about "the big gods" In the novel. "The events which are mysterious or ambiguous suggest that love may be powerful , even if we do not go so far as to say that God Is love." The pressure toward order and EMF's resort to fantasy and the supernatural In the delineation of Mrs. Moore comprise a weakness in a novel whose most considerable effects are achieved Independent of the fantasy contained in it. [An interesting, well reasoned, and challenging discussion.] Haworth, Herbert. "E. M. Forster and the Contrite Establishment," Journal of General Education, XVII (Oct I965), 196-206. Traces some of EMF's liberal and humanistic attitudes toward his friends on the editorial staff of the Independent Review and toward their contributions and those of others to the periodical. The editors were "young humanitarians who belonged to, and felt the onus of belonging to, the Establishment of 1900." They were men of good families who nevertheless felt guilt at the fact of there being "two nations" in England, EMF's novels are pervaded by the ethos of the Independent group. In Howards End EMF says that landlords and capitalists must give to the poor. Margaret gives away her money, Helen her body. EMF nevertheless values money and property perhaps more than did his friends, and he was less confident about the effects of education. Fielding in Passage is a figure of contrition; he has the humanitarian ideals of the contrite group and perhaps their deficiencies in feeling. His sympathy with Helen and Fielding as against the official and conventional point of view was his "innovatory force" as a writer In his own time, while his poetry (In the style of his books) Is his enduring distinction. The Independent group also opposed the Imperialism of Joseph Chamberlain. EMF questions the imperial theme in Journey and Howards End, but such questioning reaches its fulfilment in Passage. EMF's Independent friends helped him become socially responsible rather than a dilletante; they helped enlarge his sympathies andmade him aware of social Issues. They Influenced him to adopt a terse and direct style In order to express himself honestly and forcefully. Hellbrun, Caroline. "Speaking of Books: A Modem among Contemporaries," New York Times Book Review. 30 Jan I966, p. 2. Only James, Conrad, and EMF possessed the "Imagination of disaster" in their work as a countercurrent to the confidence of the Edwardian age. Focuses on Angels. This slight tale of the inner development of two inhibited Sawstonlans, Phillip Herrlton and Caroline Abbott, embodies "sexuality, moral Impulses, the tragic vlslon--the whole world of modern fiction." The "moderns" of the Edwardian age wrote a literature of "encounters," "encounters which did not receive the sacraments, but which were sacramental for all that." Writers such as EMF, James, Conrad, Joyce, Woolf, and Lawrence all realized "that there was no certainty but the truth of the Imagination, that, if old claims were no longer sacred, the heart's affections now were holy." Irwin, W. R. "The Survival of Pan," PMLA. LXXVI (June I96I), 159-67. Pan Is most often seen as a power-figure, malign or benevolent. 55. As a power figure he can serve as model for those who would seek to use best their own energies. He can also be a punlsher, a destroyer, and an incarnation of the diabolic; or he can be a benevolent and protective deity. In modern literature, he Is often seen in relation to Christ, who may be regarded as the fulfillment of Pan, with the elder god supplanted by the younger. Or else Pan may survive as a pagan exponent of freedom, protesting Christian rigor, before he fades away. Within this context Irwin discusses the work of Hawthorne, Lawrence, and EMF. In "The Story of a Panic" Pan redeems the boy Eustace. He also liberates the Wiltshire clergyman In "The Curate's Friend." The spirit of Pan Is Implicit In "The Celestial Omnibus," "The Point of It," and "The Road from Colonus." In the novels Glno Carella, George Emerson, and Stephen Wonham achieve a Pan-like freedom. Mrs. Wilcox and Margaret Schlegel respond to his Influence in Howards End; and In Passage the festival reveals a radical dlsorder that is Pan-llîcêT The Pan-genius pervades EMF's fiction, and his characters reach wholeness to the degree they achieve Pan-like rapport with nature. Isherwood, Christopher. Down There on a Visit. NY: Simon 4 Schuster, 1962. Pp. 162, 175-76. Interesting mention of EMF as E. M. In the "Waldemar" section of this novel. Herein Isherwood figures as the first-person narrator of the frustrated love of a German refugee for an English girl on the eve of Munich. In those trying days E. M. was a profoundly steadying Influence, advising men to live as If they were Immortal rather than as If they were going to die. He represents the best possible aspect of the British ethos and culture. Pays homage to EMF's sanity during a period of crisis and his absolute flexibility. Even his silliness is constructive because It emanates from his humanity. [Substantiates the view that during the late 1930*s and the Second World War EMF was Influential upon Intellectuals by virtue of what he was and represented.] Klrkpatrlck, B. J. A Bibliography of E. M. Forster. Lond: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1963. See McDowellT F. P". W., "E. M. Forster: Recent Extended Studies," ELT, IX« 3 (I966), I56-68. Koljevlc, Svetozar. "E. M. Forster: Sceptic as Novelist," Mad River Review. I (Fall-Winter I965), 3-15. Angels. Journey, and Room are Interesting by what they are skeptical about; Passage achieves its significance by the skeptic's realization of what his skepticism is about. The opposing force to skepticism is not, as in Howards End, so much an attitude as It is the radicalism of vision which Is fully prepared to test itself, "to explore the ultimate areas of human significance, of doubt, delusion, and uncertainty." In Angels the contrasts are too stark; In Journey the Interpreta tïonT-statement, and comment do not belong organically to the novel as a literary form. EMF's statements in Howards End are projected into story and character, even if the exploration of the issues Is not so firm as In Passage. In Howards End, the intellectual poignancy derives from Margaret's radical naivete which encourages her to assume "an Integral order in nature, society and man." But this is an illusion as far as the Wilcoxes are concerned. Stresses the uncertainties resulting in the novel from Margaret's association with the Wilcoxes; her connection with them goes counter to EMF's exposure of them. In Passage the skeptical vision is more thoroughgoing« "the novel embodies the tragic urge to establish correspondence between what has to be separate for the simple reason that separation is the form of 56. its Identity." The English and the Indians both suffer from misunderstandings: "the ways in which people resist the Ironies of their relationships are explored within a general framework of radically agnostic futility." The caves sequence derives Its power and significance not only by virtue of what Is being expressed but by the resistance—by the characters and by EMF__to what is being said. The light and warmth of the flames reflected In the cave surfaces symbolize EMF's own creative qualities which he opposes to his skeptical vision. "So this vision of an imaginative passage to India grows into a complex allegory of a modern pilgrimage in which the pilgrims are left with few Illusions and beliefs except, perhaps, In the moral dignity of their Jouney." The last ride of Fielding and Aziz expresses both a separation and an Implicit protest against It. The novel reveals EMF's skepticism, but writing the novel represents EMF's attempt to counteract that skepticism. [Somewhat obscurely reasoned and written.] Mason, W. H. A Passage to'lndla. (Notes on English Literature). NY: Barnes & Õ Joble, Õ 963T In "Significance" tries to account for reader's surprise or discomfort at presence of "Temple" section by stressing EMF's need to secure a wide perspective (by which to see the characters and events in the first two sections) and his poetic Intentions. The characters serve Forster's purposes; those (Professor Godbole and Mrs. Moore) who achieve a significance beyond the plot are less Interesting in themselves than In the quality of their vision. EMF's art is notable for Integrating the action with the situation and scene. Thus the life of the Anglo-Indians at Chandrapore, with its racial arrogance and cruelty. Intensifies the treatment of the central Incident, the trial of Aziz. EMF has not given us a complete picture of British activity In India. Rather, he has shown some representative officials and the effects of their attitudes upon problems of race and empire. His purpose Is not only realistic and political, but ethical and philosophical: he wishes to show the supreme value of human relationships attained through love. The balancing of contrasting experiences, particularly the Krishna celebration against the sinister echo of the Marabar Caves, expresses the profundity of his vision; love contends with nihilism and is In a measure victorious. The caves symbolize all forces hostile to positive belief In the meanlngfulness of the universe. To offset such negation we have the tentative but genuine affirmation of "Temple," with Its message of "God si love." In II, agrees with EMF that In "Caves" a narrowing and a concentration takes place. In "Temple," the novel opens out and achieves transcendental significance. Noteworthy is the skill with which EMF throughout switches point of view and makes use of repetition or echo. The style is characterized by Idiomatic naturalness, simplicity, and supple rhythms. In III, "Characters," contends that the characters are not larger than life and that EMF views them from a distance, thereby decreasing their charm and immediate appeal. They do not have a markedly individual idiom, and they often are presented from a shifting viewpoint. Aziz impresses by his vitality; his human weaknesses make Him convincing. Adela is a well developed but not an appealing character. 57. Fielding Is partly Forster but not completely so. EMF is more sensitive to the intuitive and the mystical than Fielding, but Fielding's kindness, courage, sympathy, and Intellectual honesty are humanistic attributes which EMF values. The characterization of Mrs. Moore Is marked by realism and by her trancendental sensitivity; she Impresses more as a presence than as an individual . The same can be said of Godbole. He Is animated by a spirit of prophecy; his detachment from the physical world Is a measure of his love of all who are within it. Martin, John S. "Mrs. Moore and the Marabar Caves: A Mythological Reading," Modern Fiction Studies, XI (Winter I965-66), 429-533. Crews Is correct in seeing Passage as less oriented toward Greek mythology than EMF's earlier work. Yet Martin regards two of the novel's chief elements, Mrs. Moore and the Marabar Caves, "as re-enactments of Greek mythological archetypes." He sees the Marabar Caves as having many similarities with the caves of the Cumaean Sybil (both have a hundred mouths, and in both an echo externalizes the visitor's own mental state). Mrs. Moore resembles the Sybil herself (both are elderly, and possess insight Into the unknown; both are votaries of a god; both are, or become, priestesses and oracles; both wrap their truths In darkness; both inhabit caves [Mrs. Moore's Is mental]; and both experience a vision of reality which makes them long for extinction ). By relating the caves and Mrs. Moore to these aspects of myth, EMF makes these elements In his novel far more convincing than they are when viewed realistically. [interesting and perceptive.] McDowell, Frederick P. W. "E. M. Forster's Conception of the Critic," Tennessee Studies In Literature. IX (I965), 93-100. EMF Is sceptical about the validity of general prlclples In literary criticism and about their usefulness for the critic. Still, some tentative principles determine EMF's view of the critic and his function, despite his own Impressionistic bias. EMF faces two ways: he distrusts analytic criticism because it Interposes itself between the work of art and the individual reacting to It; but he values the critical Intelligence as it clarifies the Individual work of art and makes It more generally available to the public. It Is the critic's function to apply "logic to the illogical"—an endless task. Sometimes, the lack of a critical instinct In the artist himself is harmful to his work. Legitimate tasks for the critic are these: the correction of untutored appreciation by "education through precision," and the «wakening of Interest In a writer. Criticism can also help "civilize the community," by encouraging the Individual to appreciate the world of the senses, and by exposing the fraudulent and the pretentious. It helps the artist only minimally. Criticism is two-fold In practice: It can be concerned with the general bearings of the artist and his works, or it can be concerned With elucidation of specific texts. In any case the successful critic needs a ranging imagination and a wide perspective. Sympathy and detach* ment are the two chief qualities he needs. ......."E. M. Forster's Theory oÃ- Literature," Criticism. VHI (Winter I966), 19-43. Attempts to define and document EMF's theory of literature using collected and uncollected writings. 58. He is no systematic critic, but If rigid principles are lacking, a point of view Is present. Here, the term "art" Includes literary art and the term "artist" Includes the literary artist. For EMF the artist Is a god-like creator whose works exist with Individual authority as "heterocosms," EMF regards each work as self-contained. He also stresses Internal order and coherence . Order results from the shaping mind of the artist. EMF stresses both the need for formal tautness, for the relevant, aesthetically impressive detail. The writer must be attentive not only to form but to style. He will be guided mainly by his need to secure a single, sustained effect. The artist must combine, therefore, critical acuteness and an active sensibility. Paradoxically, great art Is self-contained, but Its Influence radiates far beyond its self-contained universe. The artist is awake, therefore, to the complexities of life and Is inclusive in his vision. He is a realist to the extent that the external world Influences his vision and forms part of his finished work, but he must always be aware of the underlying symbolical and general Implication of his materials. Art matters greatly but It Is not all that matters. ....... "E. M. Forster: Recent Extended Studies," English Literature In Transition, IX: 3 (1966), 156-68. Rev-art on B. J. Klrkpatrlck, A BlSllography of E. M. Forster; Harry T. Moore, E. M. Forster; Malcolm Bradbury (ed), Forster: A Collection of Critical Essays; David Shusterman, The Quest for Certitude In E. M. Forster's Fiction; and Wilfred Stone, The Cave and*~the Mountain: A Study of E. M. Forster. Moore, Harry T. E. M. Forster. (Columbia Essays on Modern Writers, No. 10.) NY: Columbia U P, 1965. See McDowell, F. P. W., "E. M. Forster: Recent Extended Studies," ELT, IX: 3 (1966), 156-68. Mukherjee, Sujlt. "The Marabar Mystery: An Addition to the CaseBook on the Caves," College English, XXVII (Mar 1966), 501-03. Feels that most of the interpretations of the "caves" in Passage are unreliable. Contends that firmer Interpretations would" follow if critics recognized the actual prototypes of the caves, their attributes, and the sects associated with them. The caves In the Marabar Hills are based on those in the Barabar Hills south of modern Patna (Chandrapore). The Barabar caves are associated not with the Hindu religion, but with the atherstic AJlvlka sect, sponsored by the Emperor Asolka in the third century B. C» but now defunct. Its philosophy was marked by "quietism and determinism , inaction and denial, asceticism and negation," attributes which EMF associates with his characters' reactions In the Marabar Caves. "Thus whatever may be the symbolic doctrine of the caves In the novel, in actuality they have had no association with the theory and practice of Hinduism." [Mukherjee disregards too greatly the associations, made by EMF, of the caves with the Hindu Professor Godbole.] Parry, Benlta. "Passage to More than India," Forster: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed Malcolm Bradbury (Twentieth-Century Views) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966. Pp. 106-16. EMF's characters work In two directions: they aspire to understand themselves and the universe, but they are also alienated from their fellow men especially when differing cultures are Involved. 59. Despite the muddle of India and the Implacable and malignant quality of nature in India, the various Indias may foster modes of growth and harmony hitherto unknown to us. The Indian mind and the Indian landscape are linked to values that the Moslem and British Invaders do not understand. The Hindu flabblness is really passive resistance and stole endurance; man's Inherent activity and creatlveness are signs of his humanity and counterbalance the negations of "Caves." Godbole reveals the mystery and many-textured quality of Hinduism. Hinduism balances the Impulse toward division and the Impulse toward Inclusion. Feels message of book Is not proportion, In view of the divisive tendencies present throughout. Feels Fielding too readily compromises as a representative of normality and proportion. Incompleteness Is present not only In the characters but In developing the spiritual theme. The reconciliations suggested In the novel are only tentative; and the transcendental illusions move between uncertainty and whimsicality. The tendency of the book Is toward a muted hope, however. EMF would suggest that the "not yet" of the concluding paragraph will at some time be transcended. Plomer, William. At Home: Memoirs. Lond: Cape, 1958. Pp. 107-11, 114, 144-46. Stresses EMF's Independence rather than his affiliations with Bloomsbury. He has consistently related his Ideas "to the phases of the revolution through which he has lived, without deserting what he has believed to be true, and without relaxing that 'moral Intelligence,' without lowering that 'shield of Achilles.'" He has avoided an ivory tower existence. Maintains that "of all my uncomformable friends he has had...the clearest, subtlest, deepest mind, the most generous understanding, and the most fruitfully revolutionary Influence." Finds that EMF is no recluse ; he belongs to the world of present and future, and Is a harbinger of change. Stresses the positive aspects of EMF's philosophy of experience and maintains that his works are too truthful to date. Pryce-Jones, Alan. "Forster at 85: the Endurance of a Case Well Stated," Book Week, 5 Jan 1964, p. 3. Tries to account for the reason people now regard EMF as a great writer, considering the slenderness of the canon and his failure to handle great themes and personalities. The answer is that "In a machine-made age he has constantly asserted the value of the human heart and mind. He has always sought to enrich the private life wherever public events might lead." Like others In the Bloomsbury Group, he has tried to define "the something essential" in the civilization he writes about. He writes a fiction of emancipation; he stresses sensuous responsiveness, the Importance of human relationships, and the necessity of connecting and making the pattern of life comprehensible. He presented the dilemma In Howards End of the humane values of liberalism being dependent upon the obtuse efficiency of the rest of the world. In his last years at Cambridge he has become the guardian spirit of liberal civilization , without losing touch with ordinary people. Putt, Samuel Gorley. »The Strength of Timid Hearts: E. M. Forster," Scholars of the Heart. Lond: Faber 4 Faber, 1962. Pp. 35-42. Starts with premise that EMF Is "major in a manner so begulllngly 60. characteristic of minor." More Important In accounting for EMF's appeal to the reader than his "beautiful intelligence" is his "beautiful simplicity of heart." Finds that his "liberalism " Is marked by an excess of flexibility and tolerance. Whatever uncertainty prevails In the characters or in EMF's view of them is redeemed by EMF's mastery of dialogue. When the characters are not engaged in talk, they seem less Individual . A disparity also exists between what EMF deems desirable for his characters to achieve and what they do achieve. They are too passive and withdrawn before the challenges of life to be entirely representative. EMF, furthermore. Intellectual lzes feeling too greatly. As a result, his pagan boys do not grow up comfortably into discerning liberal men. EMF regards feeling as a truer guide than intelligence though few of his characters demonstrate, with singleness of effect, this primacy of feeling. "He can show us In the lives of decent baffled cultured folk, as Imperfect as ourselves, the residual possibilities of courage and love." Rantavaara, Irma. Virginia Woolf and Bloomsbury. Helsinki: Annales Academiae Fennlcae, Ε ψζ3. Pp. 28, 34, 42-48, 51η, 55-56, 63, 64-65, 68η, 83-84, 89, 92, 97η, 114, 126-36, 153. Extended discussion of Bloomsbury Group and EMF's relationship thereto. EMF describes accurately in Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson the Cambridge of McTaggart, Wedd, G. E. Moore, and Lowes Dickinson. Journey also captures the essence of this era at Cambridge. Asserts that EMF Is centrally part of the Bloomsbury Group by virtue of his temperament and underlying values, and not Just on its outer fringes. EMF Is indebted to G. E. Moore [although EMF says he never read Moore] for his moral and aesthetic outlook; and there are close parallels between his views on art and those of Clive Bell. Demonstrates the close similarities between his novels and the most Jamesean and least experimental of Virginia Woolf s novels. Night and Day. Sen, EIa. "A Room with a View: E. M. Forster Talks to EIa Sen," Envoy. Lond: 1956. P. 12. EMF pays homage to his Aunt Marianne Thornton and explains her kindness to him (the interview took place soon after the publication of Marianne Thornton), He feels he does not know much about contemporary India; and the Interviewer would agree. EMF feels that Indians of the newest generation are competent and confident; they do not have the mannerisms or gaucheries one saw In the older generation. EMF is appreciative of the Indian writers who use English, since he has learned much about their country from them; he praises RaJa Rao's Kanthatpura In particular. He deplores the lack of rising young poets in England. But he feels that Auden Is a poet who has grown and developed; and he reads him, including his later work, with enthusiasm. He Is skeptical about literary criticism, feeling It to be "a parasitic trade." He feels that critics too often breathe discouragement to those who write, and he deplores their "unrestrained way as of passing eternal Judgement." He plans to allow Santha Rama Rau to dramatise Passage. Stresses EMF's active intellect and greatness of vision, and the fact that he does not, in old age, live In seclusion. 61. Shusterman, David. The Quest for Certitude In E. M. Forster's Fiction. Indiana University Humanities Series, NOT t%~. Bloomlngton: Indiana U F, 1965. See McDowell, F. F. W., "E. M. Förster: Recent Extended Studies," ELT, IX: 3 (I966), I5668 . Smith, H. A. "Forster's Humanism and the Nineteenth Century," Förster: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed Malcolm Bradbury (Twentieth Century VlewsTT Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, I966. Fp. 106-116. In the novels Sawston (illiberal England and the insensitive Philistine middle class) is opposed by two forces, the instinctive wisdom of Ruth Wilcox and Stephen Wonham, and the good will plus culture plus intelligence of Fielding and Stewart Ansell. These are differing humanisms, the one Dlonyslan or romantic, the other Apollonian and rationalistic . The adherents of either philosophy are generally flawed characters, however. Instinct and intelligence, culture and nature, reason and religious insight can sometimes be combined In one person; e, g. Margaret Schlegel, who represents imaginative reason. EMF Is at the end of a long succession of social critics who attack "the Inner darkness in high places which comes with a commercial age." Principal method of confronting this darkness, established long before EMF began to write, was a confrontation of different points of view with one another, of past with present. The positive alternative to an alien civilization often takes the form of a humanism like EMF's own. In some writers, too, as in EMF, this humanism has an equivocal quality. The imaginative or religious humanism stemming from the romantic movement is ultimately more Important to EMF than the rational skeptical humanism stemming from the Enlightenment. EMF measures his characters not against a commonly accepted social norm but against Ideal standards; this lends a prophetic or apocalyptic note to his fiction. The worst failure people can reveal Is a failure in imagination and in the affections it can nourish. But EMF is less sure of the power of love and passionate understanding than were his romantic predecessors; the natural order (and the human, social order) no longer appears so benevolent as It did to the romantics. Stansky, Peter, and William Abrahams. Journey to the Frontier: Two Roads to the Spanish Civil War. Bost: Little, Brown, I966. PP. 5. 7. 9. 10, 12, 7Õ T"2"6T7~277. 279. 281, 299. 303-4, 394, 397. 409-10. A dual biography of Julian Bell and John Cornford, prominent younger poets of the 1930's who were killed In the Spanish Civil War. EMF's relationships to Bloomsbury are given in Chapter I. Bloomsbury was in essence the upper middle class of culture whose wealth and talents were inherited. EMF celebrates the life of this class in the Schlegels In Howards End; foreign to Bloomsbury was the deprivation of Leonard Bast depicted In the same novel. Julian Bell's reactions to life In China, as they were colored by his reactions to the outbreak of the Spanish War, are given in an essay he wrote In 1937, "War and Peace: A Letter to E. M. Forster," (see description under Quentin Bell above). Bell thought the detached aestheticism of Roger Fry was more consistent than the humanitarian liberalism of Leonard Woolf and EMF; he would prefer to approach 62. social matters with Fry's detachment, when an external menace such as Fascism was not too imminent. See Frederick Grubb, above. Stone, Wilfred. The Cave and the Mountain: A Study of E. M. Forster. Stanford: Stanford U P, I966. See McDowell, F. P. W., "E. M. Forster: Recent Extended Studies," ELT, IX: 3 (I966) 156-68. Thomas, Roy. and Howard Ersklne-Hill. "A Passage to India: Two Points of View," Anglo-Welsh Review, XV (Summer 1965), 44-50. Thomas asserts that EKF gives a relatively convincing picture of India, although it Is not Inclusive. As writer EMF has a strong social sense and a sense of his own limitations. In Passage a restricted scene and group of characters contain wider and larger meanings, and suggest the difficulties involved wherever minority groups exist, difficulties sometimes complicated by the presence of fallible but well-intentioned Individuals on either side. EMF's approach to his subject is that of intelligence . Irony and detachment characterize his method and approach. The detachment extends from the Indians to the English and thence to all mankind. The last section of the book Is wry In tone; Thomas finds no evidence therein of Forster as a religionist . A possible limitation is EMF's Inadequate comprehension of social and metaphysical evil. Ersklne-Hlll sees the novel as emphasizing the barriers between man and man. EMF stresses the need for open-mlndedness as opposed to closed-mlndedness. He finds the symbolism of Howards End inadequate for its subject and even phoney: It is too parochial, dull, and casual. The characters are unable to encompass EMF's chosen subject. EMF In Passage concentrates his efforts upon overcoming the second ,of the two chief deficiencies In Howards End : lack of substance and range In the characters, lack of authority In the symbolism. In Passage symbolism Is more ambitious and convincing , while the characters bear much less responsibility for the success of the novel than In Howards End. The characters are far less complicated than in the earlier book. At the liberal humanistic level, the moral significance of Passage Is clear; and EMF's method is to use apparently trivial social details to indicate a deep moral and human significance. "Mosque," "caves," and "temple" arch over and extend the meaning of the novel. The mosque suggests man's aspirations toward human unity; the caves suggest nullity and human Insignificance ("the novel Is not only about racial and social prejudice; It is also about that unacknowledged terror at the Insignificance of our lives which, Förster seems to suggest, prompts men to resort to It"); and the temple expresses the multiplicity of our experience. There Is no solution to the problems presented In the book, but "he Is providing us with an Image of life and the acceptance of Its diversity, an image which startllngly balances and contrasts the dominant symbols and concerns of the two earlier sections of the novel, and which carries with It, at least, obscure Implications of hope." Thomson, George H. "A Note on the Snake Imagery of A Passage to Indla." English Literature _ln Transition, IX: 2 (1966), 108-10. Caves signify the absence of God; Temple (and jungle) His presence: 63. a theme present In both the major and minor symbols. Among the latter are snakes and Images of snakes. The only Important actual snake Is the cobra seen by Aziz and Fielding on their last ride. Snake Images (snakes, serpents, scorpions, dragons) are abundant earlier In the novel, especially In the events and descriptions connected with the Marabar Caves. Sometimes the snake suggests the instinctive, the unconscious, the primordial and the transcendant, but mostly EMF uses the image "to reinforce the absence that prevails In the wasteland and the negation that prevails in the Marabar." The real cobra at the end stresses once again the difference between presence and absence. At the festival In "Temple" and "monster" image, with Its positive Implications , contrasts with the snakes of illusion and "nightmare vision" of the earlier part of the novel. [illuminating. "I Watts, Stephen. "Forster on 'India'—Author talks about Novel-lntoPlay ," New York Times. 28 Jan I962, sec II, pp. 1. 3. An Interview with EMF at his rooms In Kings' College. EMF Is pleased with the adaptation for the stage of his play by Santha Rama Rau, but has resisted all film offers for his novels. EMF was surprised at the commercial success of the play, but attributes It in part to the racial question which has lately come to the fore, especially in Africa. Interviewer cites EMF's main achievement In Passage as his capturing In Aziz the essence of the Indian character. Part of the success of the London run was due to the Pakistani doctor, ZIa Mohyeddln, who will also play Aziz in the N.Y. production. EMF attributes his abstention from novel writing to the disappearance of the stable society he was used to before the first war. EMF agrees with the definition of his work by John Sparrow, that it "deals with the Interaction of two types of character, the intersection, of two planes of living...the conflict of those who live by convention and those who live by Instinct." This conflict is primarily revealed In Passage in the relationship between Aziz and Fielding. EMF says that Fielding is not autobiographical, though some of Fielding's attitudes may be his. Fielding was based on a man in the Indian Education Service "not a bit like me, really." Wickes, George. "An Interview with Christopher Isherwood," Shenandoah XVI (Spring I965). 23-52. Isherwood's relationships with EMF given from Isherwood's point of view on pages 31-34 of the Interview . Interview refers to presence of "E. M." In the "Waldemar" section of Isherwood's Down There on a Visit. Isherwood admits that E. M. is EMF. He meant much to Isherwood, more than any other writer. Isherwood singles out EMF's approach. Its lightness and seriousness, and his ability to handle all kinds of material. Isherwood also stresses EMF's Involvement with contemporary issues and controversial questions. Isherwood cherishes EMF's wide range of subject and his ability to reach a kind of comedy beyond both comedy and tragedy. Isherwood feels EMF has not dried up as writer since 1924, because he has written copiously in forms other than the novel. Woolf, Leonard. Beginning Again: An Autobiography of the Years 1911I9I8 . Lond: Hogarth P, 1964. Pp. 22-25. An account of the author's relationships with the "Bloomsbury group" and with the Cambridge Apostles from whom the Bloomsbury group In large part 64. derived. EMF was part of both groups. Stresses the great influence of G. E. Moore upon the Apostles and subsequently upon members of "Bloomsbury," finding Moore's influence for example in the "clarity, light, absence of humbug" of Virginia Woolf's literary style and In Vanessa Bell's painting. The Bloomsbury Group established an Intellectual climate of opinion but had no system or principles to which they would convert others. BOOKS RECEIVED Listing here does not preclude the publication of a review in a future issue of ELT. Publishers receive two copies of the review. Bergonzi. Bernard. HEROES' TWILIGHT: A STUDY OF THE LITERATURE OF THE GREAT WAR. NY: Coward-McCann, I965. $5.00. Cook, Albert. THE DARK VOYAGE AND THE GOLDEN MEAN: A PHILOSOPHY OF COMEDY. NY: Norton. I966. The. Norton Library, N357- $1.75. Dickens, Charles. HARD TIMES. Ed. George Ford and Sylvere Mônôd. NY: Norton, I966. Norton Critical Editions. $1.95. Dickens, Charles. THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP. Garden City: Doubleday, I96I. Dolphin Book. C315. $1.45. Eigner, Edwin M. ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON AND ROMANTIC TRADITION. Princeton: Princeton U F, I966. $6.00. Goode, Stephen H. INDEX TO COMMONWEALTH LITTLE MAGAZINES 1964-1965. NY: Johnson Reprint Corp.. I966. HERBERT GEORGE WELLS: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RUSSIAN TRANSLATIONS AND LITERATURE ON WELLS IN RUSSIA. Ed. I. M. Levldova and B. M. Partchevskaya. Moscow: Knlga, I966. 55 kop. (In Russian). IBSEN. Vol VII ("The Lady From the Sea". "Hedda Gabler", and "The Master Builder"). Ed. James Walter MacFarlane; trans. Jens Arup and James Walter MacFarlane. Lond: Oxford U P1 I966. 70s. JOSEFH H0LL0WAY'S ABBEY THEATRE: A SELECTION FROM HIS UNPUBLISHED JOURNAL 'IMPRESSIONS OF A DUBLIN FLAYGOEa' Ed. Robert Hogan and Michael J. O'Neill. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U P, 1967. $6.95. Lever, J. W. THE ELIZABETHAN LOVE SONNET. Lond: Kethuen. I966. University Paperbacks, U P 176. $2.95. THE LITERARY CRITICISM OF JOHN RUSKIN. Ed. and Introd. by Harold Bloom. Garden City: Doubleday, I965. Doubleday Anchor Original, Λ480. $1.75. MINOR BRITISH NOVELISTS. Ed. Alva Hout. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U P, I967. $4.95. Norrell, Roy. THOMAS HARDY: THE WILL AND THE WAY. NY: Oxford U F, 1966. $6."50. Feters. Hobert L. SONGS FOR A SON. NY: Norton, I967. $4.50 cloth; $1.95 paper. Santayana. George. SOLILOQUIES IN ENGLAND AND LATER SOLILOQUIES. Introd. by Ralph Ross. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1967. Ann Arbor Paperbacks, ΛΑ123. $2.25. Sartre. Jean-Paul. OF HUMAN FREEDOM. Ed. Wade Basklns. NY: The Philosophical Library, I967. $4.75. San Juan, Eplfanlo, Jr. THE ART OF OSCAR WILDE. Princeton: Princeton U P, I967. $6.50. ...


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