- Abstracts of Papers
The Albert L. Tester Memorial Symposium is held in honor of Professor Albert Tester, who, at the time of his death in 1974, was Senior Professor of Zoology at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. The faculty and students of the Department of Zoology proposed an annual symposium of student research papers as a means of honoring, in a continuing and active way, Dr. Tester's lively encouragement of student research in a broad range of fields within marine biology. Papers reporting original research on any aspect of science are solicited from students at the university and these papers are presented at the symposium, which takes place during the spring semester. Income from contributions to the Albert L. Tester Memorial Fund of the University of Hawai'i Foundation is used to provide prizes for the three best papers, judged on quality, originality, and importance of research reported, as well as the quality of the public presentation. Judges include Department of Zoology faculty members and the previous year's student award winners. In addition, a distinguished scholar from another university or research institution is invited to participate in the symposium as a judge and to present the major symposium address. In 2005 the distinguished visitor and judge was Dr. Stephen Palumbi, Stanford University, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California.
A Proposal to Study Connectance of Pollination Systems in Dry Forests of Hawai'i
Traditionally, mutualistic plant-animal interactions have been placed in a dichotomy of specialized versus generalized relationships within a community. Recently ecologists have become aware that this split is artificial, and most systems are made up of connections and networks analogous to food webs. Using network theory and connectivity to describe species interactions can help explain the structural organization of the species richness of communities and how introduced pollinator species in the system can affect its stability. Hawaiian dry forests located at Pu'uwa'awa'a on the island of Hawai'i provide a system to study networks of native and introduced pollinators in a fragmented, altered landscape. Because most of the understory of the Hawaiian dry forests is a matrix of grasses, only the overstory trees will be used in this study. Observations will be made at inflorescences of all dominant tree species within the dry forest system. Each day a single species will be selected, based on phenology, and observed from sunrise to sunset. Data will be entered into a binary-coded matrix to examine interactions and connections between pollinators and plants. Analyses, following food web and network theory, will be used to test whether the connectivity is structured or random. [End Page 305]
Ecological and Behavioral Factors Influencing Patterns of Interbreeding and Genetic Diversity in the Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin3
Kimberly R. Andrews4
In many cetacean populations, reproductively isolated subgroups exist within populations even when these subgroups live in the same geographic range or are capable of traveling to other subgroups' ranges. The factors that lead to reproductive isolation in these cetacean populations are often complex. For the Hawaiian spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), there is variability throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago in factors such as geographic distance between suitable habitat, prey distribution, habitat type and availability, population size, and social structure. To investigate whether these factors have led to reproductive isolation between subgroups and influenced genetic diversity, genetic structure and genetic diversity of the spinner dolphin throughout Hawai'i were investigated. Genetic samples were collected from Kure Atoll (34 samples), Midway Atoll (57), Pearl and Hermes Reef (21), French Frigate Shoals (13), Ni'ihau (39), O'ahu (47), Maui (60), and the Big Island (77). A 429-base pair region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and 12 microsatellite loci were used to evaluate genetic structure and diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated significant genetic structure for the spinner dolphin within Hawai'i for both mtDNA and microsatellites. The pattern of genetic structure could not be explained only by geographic distance between populations, indicating the presence of additional, more complex factors influencing patterns of interbreeding. An unexpected peak in genetic diversity was found at...