restricted access African "Soul Brothers" in the 'Hood: Immigration, Islam, and the Black Encounter

A recent influx of 100,000 West African immigrants is creating an enclave which Harlem residents now call, "Little Africa." Most miss the crucial role religion plays in this urban transformation, and residents pay little attention to the Muslim identity of these Black immigrants. Their African restaurants, mosques, and the annual Bamba Day parade allow them to redefine their Black, African, and Muslim identities on their own terms, marking important distinctions between them and their Black American neighbors. Most importantly, West African Muslims construct Islamic practices that help them cope with the stigma of blackness in the U.S.