International Retirement Migration: Retired Europeans Living on the Costa Del Sol, Spain [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Europeans -- Retirement -- Spain -- Costa del Sol.
Europeans -- Spain -- Costa del Sol -- Social conditions.
Europeans -- Spain -- Costa del Sol -- Economic conditions.
This paper aims to establish the singularity of the European retired who have moved to live on the Costa del Sol, Spain. To study this topic it was necessary, first, to discuss the constrains that arise when this 'migration' is under close scrutiny; secondly, to depict the geographical model of retired Europeans who move to Spain; and, thirdly, to carry out an ad hoc survey to ascertain the reasons for this residential movement, the advantages and disadvantages of living in Spain after retirement, and the influence on several aspects of the economic and social activity on the receiving area. The survey fieldwork was conducted in April-May 1996. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis is applied to identify the relationships among demographic and perceptual variables. The results show that nationality and, to a lesser extent, age and academic level are the most important variables for grouping retired Europeans on the Costa del Sol according to their statements. The pleasant
Mediterranean climate, the lower cost of living and the informal Spanish lifestyle were the main pull factors of living in Spain, the language acting as the greatest disadvantage. As the retired relate these conditions to life in Spain, a strong relationship with tourist areas is highlighted when the geographical distribution is described.
International Retirement Migration, reasons, advantages, disadvantages, social and economic influences, lifestyle, Costa del Sol, Spain
Iraq -- Emigration and immigration -- Social aspects.
Ethnic conflict -- Social aspects -- Iraq.
Iraq War, 2003 -- Social aspects.
This article aims to fill a gap in the current literature on migration and conflict. Utilizing the conceptual framework of an "environment of insecurity," Iraqi migration trends are analyzed and projections are made for future migration patterns. An attempt is made to make sense of Iraq’s demographic data in relation to the broader context of internal and external conflicts that Iraq has been involved in over the past two decades. In light of previous findings on post-conflict Turkish migration patterns involving the Kurds, it is argued that similar migration patterns will likely surface in postwar Iraq due to similarities in respective post-conflict environments. The potential impact on international migration resulting from a worsening pattern of ethnic conflict between and among Shiites, Sunnis, Arabs, Kurds and Turkmen in Iraq is explored.
Iraq, Iraqi, international migration, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurds, Shiite, Sunnis, Arabs,
environment of insecurity, war, ethnic conflict
Bell, Patricia A.
The Impact of Rapid Urbanization on South Korean Family Composition and the Elderly Population in South Korea [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Urbanization -- Social aspects -- Korea (South)
Family -- Korea (South)
Older people -- Korea (South) -- Social conditions.
This research uses data from the South Korean Census of Population to examine
changes in population distribution across urban and rural areas of the country, and
to examine changes in family composition. Findings are consistent with findings
from similar published research in illustrating the impact of recent population and
economic factors on traditional Korean Society. More specifically, the research
examines movement of younger cohorts to urban areas, and an increasing
proportion of individuals living in nuclear family households as opposed to the
traditional stem family. The pattern of change in family composition has particular
consequences for the elderly in Korean Society.
Fertility, Human -- Developing countries -- Statistics.
Birth control -- Developing countries -- Statistics.
Developing countries -- Population -- Statistics.
Canonical correlation (Statistics)
Analyses of data from recent demographic surveys reveal that fertility has declined quite significantly in many countries, and most demographers and population analysts agree that a large part of this decline may be attributed to an increase in the use of contraception among couples of reproductive age. There is a direct linkage between the use of contraception and fertility decline, and this paper attempts to uncover the correlates of the use of contraception, and hence of fertility decline, by analyzing national level data from 93 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, Near East and North Africa, Asia and Pacific, Latin America and Caribbean, and East Europe and Central Asian Republics.
The data were taken from Population Reports (vol. 27(2), July 1999:24-27), and from the 1997 World Population Data Sheet. The main variable of interest is the percentage of couples using contraception which has been collapsed into three groups of countries: group 1 (low rates of use), group 2 (medium rates of use), and group 3 (high rates of use). The technique called canonical discriminant analysis has been used to identify those variables that discriminate among the groups most.
The analysis shows that the total fertility rate is the most influential variable in discriminating among the groups of countries with low (group 1), medium (group 2), and high (group 3) rates of the use of contraception, followed by the percentage of children under 15 years of age, human development index, urban population, population growth rate, gross national product, and child mortality, in that order.
Policy implications are discussed.
fertility, contraception, canonical discriminant analysis, cross-cultural research
Opinions, Reports, Announcements
Johnson, Daniel M. (Daniel Milo), 1940-