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Leonardo

Vol. 34 (2001) through current issue

Leonardo, founded in 1968, has become an international channel of communication for artists who use science and developing technologies in their work. With emphasis on the artists' writings, Leonardo is the leading international journal for readers interested in the application of contemporary science and technology in their work. The companion annual journal, Leonardo Music Journal (LMJ) features the latest in music, multimedia art, sound science and technology.

Published by: The MIT Press

Current Issue: Volume 48, Number 2, 2015

Volume 48, 2015

Volume 47, 2014

Volume 46, 2013

Volume 45, 2012

Volume 44, 2011

Volume 43, 2010

Volume 42, 2009

Volume 41, 2008

Volume 40, 2007

Volume 39, 2006

Volume 38, 2005

Volume 37, 2004

Volume 36, 2003

Volume 35, 2002

Volume 34, 2001


E-ISSN: 1530-9282
Print ISSN: 0024-094X

Editorial Board

Volume 48, Number 3, 2015

International Co-Editors

David Carrier, <david.carrier7@gmail.com>

Ernest Edmonds, Creativity and Cognition Studios, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia <ernest@ ernestedmonds.com>

Jack Ox, U.S.A. <jackox@bway.net>

Sheila Pinkel, Pomona College, U.S.A. <spinkel@earthlink.net>

Michael Punt, Transtechnology Research, Plymouth University, U.K. <mpunt@easynet.co.uk>

Robert Root-Bernstein, Michigan State Univ., U.S.A. <rootbern@msu.edu>

Christa Sommerer, Austria <christa.sommerer@ufg.ac.at>

Executive Editor

Roger F. Malina, ATEC, University of Texas at Dallas, U.S.A. <roger.malina@utdallas.edu>

Editorial Advisors

Annick Bureaud, France <abureaud@gmail.com>

Donna Cox, University of Illinois/National Center for Supercomputing, U.S.A. <cox@ncsa.uiuc.edu>

Ricardo Dal Farra, National University Tres de Febrero, Argentina <ricardo@dalfarra.com.ar>

Sue Denham, Cognition Institute, Plymouth University <S.Denham@plymouth.ac.uk>

Michele Emmer, Dipartimento di Matematica “G. Castelnuovo,” Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Italy <emmer@mat.uniroma1.it>

Angus Forbes, Electronic Visualization Lab, University of Illinois at Chicago, U.S.A. <angus.forbes@gmail.com>

Ken Friedman, Tongji University, Shanghai, China <ken.friedman.sheji@icloud.com>

Jean Gagnon, Canada <jgagnon@videotron.ca>

George Gessert, U.S.A. <ggessert@igc.org>

István Hargittai, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary <istvan.hargittai@gmail.com>

Drew Hemment, Lancaster University and FutureEverything, U.K. <d.hemment@lancaster.ac.uk>

Amy Ione, The Diatrope Institute, U.S.A. <amy.ione@gmail.com>

Eduardo Kac, Art and Technology Dept., The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, U.S.A. <ekac@artic.edu>

Aleksandra Mańczak, Poland <aleksandra.manczak@toya.net.pl>

Isabel Meirelles, Northeastern University, U.S.A. <m.meirelles@neu.edu>

Frieder Nake, Informatik, University of Bremen, Germany <nake@informatik.uni-bremen.de>

Clifford Pickover, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, U.S.A. <pickover@gmail.com>

Louise Poissant, Département d’arts plastiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada <gram@er.uqam.ca>

Larry Polansky, U.S.A. <larry.polansky@mac.dartmouth.edu>

Sundar Sarukkai, Manipal University, India <sarukkai1@yahoo.com>

Maximilian Schich, CCNR Northeastern University, U.S.A. <maximilian@schich.info>

Tami Spector, University of San Francisco, U.S.A. <tamispector@gmail.com>

Rejane Spitz, PUC-RIO, Departmento de Artes, Brazil <rejane@puc-rio.br>

Arthur Woods, The OURS Foundation, Switzerland <awoods@spaceart.net>

Honorary Editors

Roy Ascott (U.K.)

Dennis Bartels (U.S.A.)

Marc Battier

Jürgen Claus (Belgium)

Jody Diamond

Elmer Duncan (U.S.A.)

Herbert W. Franke (Germany)

Yona Friedman (Israel)

Yusuf A. Grillo (Nigeria)

John H. Holloway (U.K.)

Peter Lloyd Jones (U.K.)

Madhoor Kapur (India)

Richard I. Land (U.S.A.)

Thomas E. Linehan (U.S.A.)

Jacques Mandelbrojt (France)

Frank Popper (France)

Harry Rand (U.S.A.)

Ervin Rodin (U.S.A.)

Itsuo Sakane (Japan)

Sonia Sheridan (U.S.A.)

K.‑G. Subramanyan (India)

Takis (Greece)

David R. Topper (Canada)

Guest Editors

Art and Atoms

Tami Spector

Arts | Humanities | Complex Networks

Maximilian Schich

Isabel Meirelles

ArtScience: The Essential Connection

Robert Root-Bernstein

Environment 2.0: Through the Cracks in the Pavement

Drew Hemment

The Future of Art History in the Context of New Discoveries of Psychology and the Cognitive Sciences

David Carrier

The Ph.D. in Art and Design

Ken Friedman

Jack Ox

Heico Wesselius

Re-Imagining the Moon

Sundar Sarukkai

Trust Me, I’m an Artist

Annick Bureaud, Anna Dumitriu, Bobbie Farside

Main Editorial Office

Executive Editor

Roger F. Malina
ATEC, University of Texas at Dallas
<roger.malina@utdallas.edu>

Managing Editor

Pamela Grant-Ryan

Consulting Editor

Patricia Bentson

Associate Editor

Nicholas Cronbach

Editorial Assistant

Maryam Shamlou

Proofreader

Jennifer Brown

Editorial Intern

Poe Johnson

Leonardo Music Journal

Editor-in-Chief

Nicolas Collins

Managing Editor

Patricia Bentson

Leonardo Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

Michael Punt

Managing Editor

Bryony Dalefield

Associate Editors

Dene Grigar

Martha Blassnigg

Hannah Drayson

Leonardo Electronic Almanac

Editors

Lanfranco Aceti

Ozden Sahin

Leonardo Transactions

Editor

Ernest Edmonds

Managing Editor

Viveka Weiley

Design and Production

Wilsted & Taylor Publishing Services

Founder

Frank J. Malina (1912–1981)

Frank J. Malina founded the journal Leonardo in 1967 as a professional journal for working artists to write about their own work. The journal’s interdisciplinary aims and scope reflect his many achievements as an aeronautical engineer, pioneer in rocketry, research administrator, promoter of international cooperation, artist and editor.

Founding Publisher

I.R. Maxwell (1923–1991)

I. R. Maxwell, as chairman of Pergamon Press, was the founding publisher of Leonardo in 1967. His vision of the future of publishing was instrumental to the establishment of contemporary scientific and scholarly publications and resulted in a major contribution to the development of modern science. His support and encouragement of Leonardo over 25 years are gratefully acknowledged.

Past Editorial Board Members

George Agoston

L. Alcopley

Rudolf Arnheim

Pierre Auger

Max Bill

Vladimir Bonacíc

Ray Bradbury

Jacob Bronowski

John Cage

Giorgio Careri

John E. Fobes

R. Buckminster Fuller

Bulat Galeyev

James J. Gibson

Jorge Glusberg

Richard Gregory

Gyorgy Kepes

Marjorie Malina

Joseph Needham

Frank Oppenheimer

Otto Piene

Cyril Stanley Smith

C.P. Snow

Kirill Sokolov

C.H. Waddington

Lancelot Law Whyte

Stephen Wilson

Volume 48, Number 2, 2015

International Co-Editors

David Carrier, <david.carrier7@gmail.com>

Ernest Edmonds, Creativity and Cognition Studios, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia <ernest@ ernestedmonds.com>

Jack Ox, U.S.A. <jackox@bway.net>

Sheila Pinkel, Pomona College, U.S.A. <spinkel@earthlink.net>

Michael Punt, Transtechnology Research, Plymouth University, U.K. <mpunt@easynet.co.uk>

Robert Root-Bernstein, Michigan State Univ., U.S.A. <rootbern@msu.edu>

Christa Sommerer, Austria <christa.sommerer@ufg.ac.at>

Executive Editor

Roger F. Malina, ATEC, University of Texas at Dallas, U.S.A. <roger.malina@utdallas.edu>

Editorial Advisors

Annick Bureaud, France <abureaud@gmail.com>

Donna Cox, University of Illinois/National Center for Supercomputing, U.S.A. <cox@ncsa.uiuc.edu>

Ricardo Dal Farra, National University Tres de Febrero, Argentina <ricardo@dalfarra.com.ar>

Sue Denham, Cognition Institute, Plymouth University <S.Denham@plymouth.ac.uk>

Michele Emmer, Dipartimento di Matematica “G. Castelnuovo,” Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Italy <emmer@mat.uniroma1.it>

Angus Forbes, Electronic Visualization Lab, University of Illinois at Chicago, U.S.A. <angus.forbes@gmail.com>

Ken Friedman, Tongji University, Shanghai, China <ken.friedman.sheji@icloud.com>

Jean Gagnon, Canada <jgagnon@videotron.ca>

George Gessert, U.S.A. <ggessert@igc.org>

István Hargittai, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary <istvan.hargittai@gmail.com>

Drew Hemment, Lancaster University and FutureEverything, U.K. <d.hemment@lancaster.ac.uk>

Amy Ione, The Diatrope Institute, U.S.A. <amy.ione@gmail.com>

Eduardo Kac, Art and Technology Dept., The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, U.S.A. <ekac@artic.edu>

Aleksandra Mańczak, Poland <aleksandra.manczak@toya.net.pl>

Isabel Meirelles, Northeastern University, U.S.A. <m.meirelles@neu.edu>

Frieder Nake, Informatik, University of Bremen, Germany <nake@informatik.uni-bremen.de>

Clifford Pickover, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, U.S.A. <pickover@gmail.com>

Louise Poissant, Département d’arts plastiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada <gram@er.uqam.ca>

Larry Polansky, U.S.A. <larry.polansky@mac.dartmouth.edu>

Sundar Sarukkai, Manipal University, India <sarukkai1@yahoo.com>

Maximilian Schich, CCNR Northeastern University, U.S.A. <maximilian@schich.info>

Tami Spector, University of San Francisco, U.S.A. <tamispector@gmail.com>

Rejane Spitz, PUC-RIO, Departmento de Artes, Brazil <rejane@puc-rio.br>

Arthur Woods, The OURS Foundation, Switzerland <awoods@spaceart.net>

Honorary Editors

Roy Ascott (U.K.)

Dennis Bartels (U.S.A.)

Marc Battier

Jürgen Claus (Belgium)

Jody Diamond

Elmer Duncan (U.S.A.)

Herbert W. Franke (Germany)

Yona Friedman (Israel)

Yusuf A. Grillo (Nigeria)

John H. Holloway (U.K.)

Peter Lloyd Jones (U.K.)

Madhoor Kapur (India)

Richard I. Land (U.S.A.)

Thomas E. Linehan (U.S.A.)

Jacques Mandelbrojt (France)

Frank Popper (France)

Harry Rand (U.S.A.)

Ervin Rodin (U.S.A.)

Itsuo Sakane (Japan)

Sonia Sheridan (U.S.A.)

K.‑G. Subramanyan (India)

Takis (Greece)

David R. Topper (Canada)

Guest Editors

Art and Atoms

Tami Spector

Arts | Humanities | Complex Networks

Maximilian Schich and Isabel Meirelles

ArtScience: The Essential Connection

Robert Root-Bernstein

Environment 2.0: Through the Cracks in the Pavement

Drew Hemment

The Future of Art History in the Context of New Discoveries of Psychology and the Cognitive Sciences

David Carrier

The Ph.D. in Art and Design

Ken Friedman

Jack Ox

Re-Imagining the Moon

Sundar Sarukkai

Main Editorial Office

Executive Editor

Roger F. Malina, ATEC, University of Texas at Dallas <roger.malina@utdallas.edu>

Managing Editor

Pamela Grant-Ryan

Consulting Editor

Patricia Bentson

Associate Editor

Nicholas Cronbach

Editorial Assistant

Maryam Shamlou

Proofreader

Jennifer Brown

Editorial Intern

Poe Johnson

Leonardo Music Journal

Editor-in-Chief

Nicolas Collins

Managing Editor

Patricia Bentson

Leonardo Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

Michael Punt

Managing Editor

Bryony Dalefield

Associate Editors

Dene Grigar

Martha Blassnigg

Hannah Drayson

Leonardo Electronic Almanac

Editors

Lanfranco Aceti

Ozden Sahin

Leonardo Transactions

Editor

Ernest Edmonds

Managing Editor

Viveka Weiley

Design and Production

Wilsted & Taylor Publishing Services

Founder

Frank J. Malina (1912–1981)

Frank J. Malina founded the journal Leonardo in 1967 as a professional journal for working artists to write about their own work. The journal’s interdisciplinary aims and scope reflect his many achievements as an aeronautical engineer, pioneer in rocketry, research administrator, promoter of international cooperation, artist and editor.

Founding Publisher

I.R. Maxwell (1923–1991)

I. R. Maxwell, as chairman of Pergamon Press, was the founding publisher of Leonardo in 1967. His vision of the future of publishing was instrumental to the establishment of contemporary scientific and scholarly publications and resulted in a major contribution to the development of modern science. His support and encouragement of Leonardo over 25 years are gratefully acknowledged.

Past Editorial Board Members

George Agoston

L. Alcopley

Rudolf Arnheim

Pierre Auger

Max Bill

Vladimir Bonacíc

Ray Bradbury

Jacob Bronowski

John Cage

Giorgio Careri

John E. Fobes

R. Buckminster Fuller

Bulat Galeyev

James J. Gibson

Jorge Glusberg

Richard Gregory

Gyorgy Kepes

Marjorie Malina

Joseph Needham

Frank Oppenheimer

Otto Piene

Cyril Stanley Smith

C.P. Snow

Kirill Sokolov

C.H. Waddington

Lancelot Law Whyte

Stephen Wilson

Volume 48, Number 1, 2015

International Co-Editors

David Carrier, <david.carrier7@gmail.com>

Ernest Edmonds, Creativity and Cognition Studios, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia <ernest@ ernestedmonds.com>

Jack Ox, U.S.A. <jackox@bway.net>

Sheila Pinkel, Pomona College, U.S.A. <spinkel@earthlink.net>

Michael Punt, Transtechnology Research, Plymouth University, U.K. <mpunt@easynet.co.uk>

Robert Root-Bernstein, Michigan State Univ., U.S.A. <rootbern@msu.edu>

Christa Sommerer, Austria <christa.sommerer@ufg.ac.at>

Executive Editor

Roger F. Malina, ATEC, University of Texas at Dallas, U.S.A. <roger.malina@utdallas.edu>

Editorial Advisors

Annick Bureaud, France <abureaud@gmail.com>

Donna Cox, University of Illinois/National Center for Supercomputing, U.S.A. <cox@ncsa.uiuc.edu>

Ricardo Dal Farra, National University Tres de Febrero, Argentina <ricardo@dalfarra.com.ar>

Sue Denham, Cognition Institute, Plymouth University <S.Denham@plymouth.ac.uk>

Michele Emmer, Dipartimento di Matematica “G. Castelnuovo,” Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Italy <emmer@mat.uniroma1.it>

Angus Forbes, Electronic Visualization Lab, University of Illinois at Chicago, U.S.A. <angus.forbes@gmail.com>

Jean Gagnon, Canada <jgagnon@videotron.ca>

George Gessert, U.S.A. <ggessert@igc.org>

István Hargittai, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary <istvan.hargittai@gmail.com>

Drew Hemment, Lancaster University and FutureEverything, U.K. <d.hemment@lancaster.ac.uk>

Amy Ione, The Diatrope Institute, U.S.A. <amy.ione@gmail.com>

Eduardo Kac, Art and Technology Dept., The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, U.S.A. <ekac@artic.edu>

Aleksandra Man´czak, Poland <aleksandra.manczak@toya.net.pl>

Isabel Meirelles, Northeastern University, U.S.A. <m.meirelles@neu.edu>

Frieder Nake, Informatik, University of Bremen, Germany <nake@informatik.uni-bremen.de>

Clifford Pickover, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, U.S.A. <pickover@gmail.com>

Louise Poissant, Département d’arts plastiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada <gram@er.uqam.ca>

Larry Polansky, U.S.A. <larry.polansky@mac.dartmouth.edu>

Sundar Sarukkai, Manipal University, India <sarukkai1@yahoo.com>

Maximilian Schich, CCNR Northeastern University, U.S.A. <maximilian@schich.info>

Tami Spector, University of San Francisco, U.S.A. <tamispector@gmail.com>

Rejane Spitz, PUC-RIO, Departmento de Artes, Brazil <rejane@puc-rio.br>

Arthur Woods, The OURS Foundation, Switzerland <awoods@spaceart.net>

Honorary Editors

Roy Ascott (U.K.)

Dennis Bartels (U.S.A.)

Marc Battier

Jürgen Claus (Belgium)

Jody Diamond

Elmer Duncan (U.S.A.)

Herbert W. Franke (Germany)

Yona Friedman (Israel)

Yusuf A. Grillo (Nigeria)

John H. Holloway (U.K.)

Peter Lloyd Jones (U.K.)

Madhoor Kapur (India)

Richard I. Land (U.S.A.)

Thomas E. Linehan (U.S.A.)

Jacques Mandelbrojt (France)

Frank Popper (France)

Harry Rand (U.S.A.)

Ervin Rodin (U.S.A.)

Itsuo Sakane (Japan)

Sonia Sheridan (U.S.A.)

K.‑G. Subramanyan (India)

Takis (Greece)

David R. Topper (Canada)

Guest Editors

Art and Atoms

Tami Spector

Arts | Humanities | Complex Networks

Maximilian Schich and Isabel Meirelles

ArtScience: The Essential Connection

Robert Root-Bernstein

Environment 2.0: Through the Cracks in the Pavement

Drew Hemment

The Future of Art History in the Context of New Discoveries of Psychology and the Cognitive Sciences

David Carrier

The Ph.D. in Art and Design

Ken Friedman and Jack Ox

Re-Imagining the Moon

Sundar Sarukkai

Main Editorial Office

Executive Editor

Roger F. Malina, ATEC, University of Texas at Dallas

Managing Editor

Pamela Grant-Ryan

Consulting Editor

Patricia Bentson

Associate Editor

Nicholas Cronbach

Editorial Assistant

Maryam Shamlou

Proofreader

Jennifer Brown

Editorial Intern

Poe Johnson

Leonardo Music Journal

Editor-in-Chief

Nicolas Collins

Managing Editor

Patricia Bentson

Leonardo Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

Michael Punt

Managing Editor

Bryony Dalefield

Associate Editors

Dene Grigar

Martha Blassnigg

Hannah Drayson

Leonardo Electronic Almanac

Editors

Lanfranco Aceti

Ozden Sahin

Leonardo Transactions

Editor

Ernest Edmonds

Managing Editor

Viveka Weiley

Design and Production

Wilsted & Taylor Publishing Services

Founder

Frank J. Malina (1912–1981)

Founding Publisher

I.R. Maxwell (1923–1991)

Past Editorial Board Members

George Agoston

L. Alcopley

Rudolf Arnheim

Pierre Auger

Max Bill

Vladimir Bonacíc

Ray Bradbury

Jacob Bronowski

John Cage

Giorgio Careri

John E. Fobes

R. Buckminster Fuller

Bulat Galeyev

James J. Gibson

Jorge Glusberg

Richard Gregory

Gyorgy Kepes

Marjorie Malina

Joseph Needham

Frank Oppenheimer

Otto Piene

Cyril Stanley Smith

C.P. Snow

Kirill Sokolov

C.H. Waddington

Lancelot Law Whyte

Stephen Wilson

Research Areas

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