Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Volume 59, Number 1, January 2004

CONTENTS

    Leon, Sharon, 1959-
  • "Hopelessly Entangled in Nordic Pre-suppositions": Catholic Participation in the American Eugenics Society in the 1920s
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    Subject Headings:
    • American Eugenics Society.
    • Eugenics -- United States.
    • Catholics -- United States -- Intellectual life -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      While American Catholics stand out as some of the few voices of cultural opposition to the eugenics movement in the United States, Catholics and eugenicists actively engaged in conversational exchanges during the late 1920s. In association with the Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen of the American Eugenics Society, John A. Ryan and John Montgomery Cooper engaged in a process that Sander Gilman and Nancy Leys Stepan call "recontextualization," whereby they challenged the social and scientific basis for eugenics policy initiatives while constantly urging American eugenicists to rid their movement of racial and class prejudice. In the process, they participated in a revealing debate on immigration restriction, charity, racial hierarchies, feminism, birth control, and sterilization that points to both the instances of convergence and divergence of Catholic and eugenic visions for the national community.
    Keywords:
      Catholicism, eugenics, John A. Ryan, John Montgomery Cooper, Paul Popenoe, Leon Whitney, American Eugenics Society, Committee on Cooperation with Clergymen, Casti Connubii.
    Benedek, Thomas G.
  • The History of Gold Therapy for Tuberculosis
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    Subject Headings:
    • Tuberculosis -- Treatment -- History -- 20th century.
    • Gold -- Therapeutic use -- History -- 20th century.
    Abstract:
      This is a historical study of the popularization of a medical therapy contrary to pertinent experimental findings. Presumably this circumstance reflects the desperation about tuberculosis: highly prevalent, highly fatal, and lacking any etiologically directed therapy. Gold compounds were introduced, based initially on the reputation of Robert Koch, who had found gold cyanide effective against M. tuberculosis in cultures, but not in experimentally infected animals. Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis with these compounds was popularized, particularly by Danish physicians, in the mid-1920s, despite consistently negative experimental results, based on Paul Ehrlich's theories of antimicrobial drug effects. Difficulties in the design of interpretable clinical studies were soon recognized but also generally ignored, thus permitting data to be interpreted as favorable to antituberculous gold therapy. Eventually toxicity was considered to outweigh the alleged therapeutic benefit of all gold compounds. This resulted in their discard shortly before the introduction of streptomycin therapy.
    Keywords:
      Tuberculosis treatment, gold drugs, research methodology.
    Goodheart, Lawrence B., 1944-
  • Rethinking Mental Retardation: Education and Eugenics in Connecticut, 1818-1917
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    Subject Headings:
    • Mental retardation -- Connecticut -- History.
    • People with mental disabilities -- Education -- Connecticut -- History.
    • People with mental disabilities -- Institutional care -- Connecticut -- History.
    Abstract:
      This case study of mental retardation in Connecticut during 1818-1917 questions the existing model of interpretation. The discovery of mental retardation in Connecticut did not emanate from social fear overthose who were different, difficult, or dangerous. Nor did state government initiate the institutionalization of the feeble-minded. Instead, Dr.Henry M. Knight, who founded the private Connecticut School for Imbeciles in 1858, was motivated by antebellum religious benevolence. His altruism was additionally motivated by cultural concerns to shape behavior according to middle-class, Protestant norms. By the end of the century, his son and successor Dr. George H. Knight departed from his father's emphasis on education and assimilation to embrace eugenics and segregation of the mentally retarded. Connecticut's pioneering marital ban (1895) and sterilization law (1909) were, however, virtually ineffective. Instead, the state sponsored in 1917 a large-scale custodial facility that sought to isolate the feeble-minded, whom reformers now portrayed as a menace to society. In sum, the Knights show a clear departure in policy between the first and second generation of administrators.
    Keywords:
      Mental retardation, eugenics, Connecticut, Dr. Henry M. Knight, Dr. George H. Knight, Lakeville School for Imbeciles, Mansfield State Training School and Hospital.

Letters to the Editor

    Greenberg, Morris, Dr.
  • Letter to the Editor
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartrip, P. W. J. (Peter W. J.) Irving John Selikoff and the strange case of the missing medical degrees.
    • Selikoff, Irving J. -- Knowledge and learning.
    Cooper, Robert.
    Chromow, Deb.
  • Letter to the Editor
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartrip, P. W. J. (Peter W. J.) Irving John Selikoff and the strange case of the missing medical degrees.
    • Selikoff, Irving J. -- Knowledge and learning.
    Bartrip, P. W. J. (Peter W. J.)
  • Around the World in Nine Years: A Medical Education Revisited
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartrip, P. W. J. (Peter W. J.) Irving John Selikoff and the strange case of the missing medical degrees.
    • Selikoff, Irving J. -- Knowledge and learning.

Recent Dissertations in the History of Medicine

Book Reviews

    Dracobly, Alexander Ferris.
  • A Cultural History of Medical Vitalism in Enlightenment Montpellier (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Williams, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Ann), 1950- Cultural history of medical vitalism in enlightenment Montpellier.
    • Medicine -- France -- Montpellier -- History.
    Murphy, Elaine, MD.
  • The Poor Law of Lunacy: The Administration of Pauper Lunatics in Mid-Nineteenth Century England (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Bartlett, Peter. Poor law of lunacy: the administration of pauper lunatics in mid-nineteenth century England.
    • Mentally ill -- Institutional care -- Government policy -- England -- History -- 19th century.
    Sappol, Michael.
  • Out of the Dead House: Nineteenth-Century Women Physicians and the Writing of Medicine (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Wells, Susan. Out of the dead house: nineteenth-century women physicians and the writing of medicine.
    • Women physicians -- United States.
    Gregory, S. Ryan.
  • The Persisting Osler III: Selected Transactions of the American Osler Society, 1991-2000 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Barondess, Jeremiah A., 1924-, ed. Persisting Osler III: selected transactions of the American Osler Society, 1991-2000.
    • Roland, Charles G., ed.
    • Osler, William, Sir, 1849-1919 -- Congresses.
    Huddle, Thomas Stewart, 1955-
  • A History of Yale's School of Medicine: Passing Torches to Others, and: Making the Modern Medical School: The Wisconsin Stories (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Burrow, Gerard N., 1933- History of Yale's School of Medicine: passing torches to others.
    • Oliver, Robert, 1967- Making the modern medical school: the Wisconsin stories.
    • Medical colleges -- Connecticut -- History.
    • University of Wisconsin Medical School -- History.
    Guerrini, Anita, 1953-
  • Specious Science: How Genetics and Evolution Reveal Why Medical Research on Animals Harms Humans (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Greek, C. Ray. Specious science: how genetics and evolution reveal why medical research on animals harms humans.
    • Greek, Jean Swingle.
    • Diseases -- Animal models.
    Gerdin, Jodie.
  • Valuing Animals: Veterinarians and Their Patients in Modern America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Jones, Susan D., 1964- Valuing animals: veterinarians and their patients in modern America.
    • Veterinary medicine -- United States -- History.
    Roberts, Samuel, 1973-
  • Missions for Science: U.S. Technology and Medicine in America's African World (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • McBride, David, 1949- Missions for science: U.S. technology and medicine in America's African world.
    • Technology transfer -- Southern States.
    Shapiro-Shapin, Carolyn G.
  • Innovations in Health and Medicine: Diffusion and Resistance in the Twentieth Century (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Stanton, Jennifer, 1950-, ed. Innovations in health and medicine: diffusion and resistance in the twentieth century.
    • Medicine -- History -- 20th century.
    Bennahum, David A., 1936-
  • Cicely Saunders, Founder of the Hospice Movement: Selected Letters, 1959-1999 (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Saunders, Cicely M., Dame. Cicely Saunders, founder of the hospice movement: selected letters, 1959-1999.
    • Clark, David, 1953-, ed.
    • Saunders, Cicely M., Dame -- Correspondence.
    Crowther-Heyck, Hunter.
  • Pushbutton Psychiatry: A History of Electroshock in America (review)
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    Subject Headings:
    • Kneeland, Timothy W., 1962- Pushbutton psychiatry: a history of electroshock in America.
    • Warren, Carol A. B., 1944-
    • Electroconvulsive therapy -- United States -- History -- 20th century.

Erratum

Books Received

Notes on Contributors




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