Dead Sea scrolls. 1QS -- Criticism, interpretation, etc.
Prayer -- Judaism.
The development of statutory, communal prayer within Judaism of late Antiquity is often described as the result of the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. The liturgical texts found in the Qumran caves have raised significant questions about the origins of such prayer within second Temple Judaism. Some recent scholarship of Jewish liturgy recognizes that the reality is more complex than this simple view of replacement. However, Qumran scholarship, in general, continues to present prayer in the Qumran community as a substitute for the rejected sacrificial system of the Temple in Jerusalem. The present study makes a case for understanding the community's practice of prayer as an act of righteousness contributing to the holiness and righteousness central to the life of the community. The deterministic Qumran community also dismissed the possibility that confession of sin could effect God's restoration, and instead required "perfection of way" from all its members in order to maintain holiness and obtain atonement. Speech, in general, and prayer, in particular, functioned as essential acts of righteousness and obedience to God's Law, marking the passage of time according to the holy calendar and securing atonement for the holy community.
Tirosh-Beker, Ofrah, 1961-
Karaite Judeo-Arabic Translations of Mishnah Rosh ha-Shanah: On the Meaning of Ba'alil [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Mishnah. Rosh ha-shanah.
Karaitic literature -- History and criticism.
Karaite scholars of the tenth and the eleventh centuries were well acquainted with rabbinic literature. This is evident from their writings in which they cite excerpts from the Mishnah and other rabbinic sources. These citations were occasionally accompanied by Karaite Judeo-Arabic translations, which are of special interest as medieval rabbinic Judeo-Arabic translations of the Mishnah are not common. In this paper we present Judeo-Arabic translations of Mishnah Rosh ha-Shanah 1.5 written by the five renowned Karaite scholars Yusuf al-Basir, Ya'qub al-Qirqisani, Yeshu'ah ben Yehudah, Levi ben Yefet and David ben Avraham al-Fasi, all from the tenth and the eleventh centuries. The word ba'alil, whose Karaite translations are discussed here in details, appears three times in this mishnah, which relates to the sanctification of the new lunar month. This word is a hapax legomenon in the Bible (Ps 12.7) and its occurrences in rabbinic literature are few. This study shows that the Karaite Judeo-Arabic translations of ba'alil reflect two main interpretations, both pertaining to first visibility. One explains ba'alil as reflecting attributes of the new moon, while the other views this word as indicating the relative position of the new moon in the sky. From this discussion we also learn of the Karaite attitude towards the rabbinic text. Not only did these Karaites cite from the Mishnah they also translated passages from it and discussed the exact meaning of key terms that appear in these texts.
Karaites, Rabbinic Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, Mishnah, Translations, New Moon, Sanctification of the Month, Hapax Legomenon
Jews -- Palestine -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
Zionism -- Palestine.
Death -- Religious aspects -- Judaism.
During the decade preceding WWI, a sense that the Jews were a nation on its deathbed motivated Zionist cultural activists to work for the creation of a new Jewish national culture in Palestine. Imagery of death and a counter-imagery of rebirth consequently emerged as central elements in the Yishuv's new national culture. Informed by a European discourse in which the threat of racial degeneration and social decadence had become a ubiquitous trope, imagery of death emerges as a window into the new Jewish life which Zionists sought to construct. The refiguration of death was part of a comprehensive Jewish revolution which remained, almost despite itself, deeply indebted to the discourses and imageries of the traditional Judaism it sought to reject and defy. It was the encounter between a European nationalist sensibility and a quintessentially Jewish language that informed the consciousness and motivations of the Yishuv's cultural activists, and which shaped the culture they would produce. Their attempt to grant new meanings to death-and through it, to life-sheds light on a complex and nuanced interaction of old and new in Jewish nationalism. It seems to call for a historiography more attentive to the continued stirrings of the old within the new in nationalism generally-not in negation of nationalism's fundamental modernity, but towards a deepened appreciation of the nature of that modernity itself.
Rabbi Milton Steinberg died in 1950, but he continues to live on in the memory of those whom he touched and through his writings. His novel "As a Driven Leaf" published in 1939, and his "Basic Judaism" published in 1947 sell very well and attract new readers. His son, Jonathan Steinberg, examines the theological bases of this remarkable influence and follows Steinberg's theology from Kaplan's Reconstructionism and his initial rationalism through Neo-Orthodox Protestant theology as Steinberg struggled to find an adequate response to the Holocaust. Steinberg occupied a unique position in the American rabbinate: he was a congregational rabbi who combined pastoral duties and an intense God-centered devotional life on which he based liturgy and practice.
Park Avenue Synagogue