Women authors, English -- 18th century -- Correspondence.
Health resorts -- Social aspects -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
Female friendship -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century.
Conversation -- History -- 18th century.
This article analyzes the role resort towns such as Bath, Bristol, Brighton, and Tunbridge Wells played in establishing a legitimate space for female correspondence (the intercourse or relation between individuals and groups of individuals as well as the letters they produced) within the public sphere. Spas helped women bypass the prevailing models of female friendship and female letters that submerged women's alliances beneath the imperatives of a patriarchal society, thereby allowing them to develop a distinctive style of spa correspondence. In its reading of Bluestocking letters, this essay describes this correspondence as characterized by a communal sense of female identity and a "spectatorial" epistolary style.
Burney, Fanny, 1752-1840 -- Criticism and interpretation.
Women in literature.
Subjectivity in literature.
Abjection in literature.
Robots in literature.
This essay explores how the eighteenth-century automaton operates as a pervasive model for the instability of female subject-formation in Burney's novels, and the affective dilemmas involved in ritual acts of "coming out" in eighteenth-century society. It argues that few models of subjectivity compel and thwart Burney more than the capacious figure of the eighteenth-century automaton and its well-modulated displays of openness and inwardness, whether captured in marvelous toys, the strict patterns of conduct book femininity, or the carefully crafted characters of a novel.
Booksellers and bookselling -- Great Britain -- Colportage, subscription trade, etc. -- History -- 18th century.
Critics have tended to view Frances Burney's authorial activities as evidence of her diffidence as a cultural producer. In fact, a closer examination of her publishing history, especially her management of the subscription publication of her third novel, Camilla, reveals quite the contrary. In addition to being an accomplished novelist, playwright, letter writer, and diarist, Burney was also a skillful negotiator who understood the economic and aesthetic value of her literary productions, and worked hard to obtain what she felt to be appropriate remuneration for them. Not only was Burney willing to engage with the material aspects of cultural production, but she was sensitive to the subtleties of exchange dynamics operating during the time in which she was writing. By focusing on her publishing history, we are able to trace the arc of her professionalization, and come to understand the ways in which Burney negotiated the complexities of the literary field.
Austen, Jane, 1775-1817 -- Criticism and interpretation.
English literature -- 18th century -- Social aspects.
Social classes in literature.
In most of her novels, Jane Austen goes to considerable lengths to offer the reader information about the financial circumstances of her characters, and failure to appreciate its significance can lead to serious misunderstanding of their social status. Although there is nothing bourgeois about the Bertrams, Sir Thomas' "West Indian property" has misled recent critics into regarding him as a "great West Indian," and it has even been implied that Austen is herself a bourgeois writer. While her novels are preoccupied with issues of entitlement and rank, she should be included among the "well-bred country gentlemen and ladies" she describes in her novels, and not within the ranks of the middle classes or the "pseudo-gentry."
One of the most famous Venetian women of her time, Isabella Teotochi Albrizzi (1760–1836) was known not only for her salon, but also for her published works. One of these pieces, Teotochi Albrizzi's Ritratti (1807), a series of literary portraits, reveals Europe's concern over the simulation of virtue in a society beginning to judge merit by behavior and self-presentation rather than birth. Teotochi Albrizzi's portraits demonstrate the strategies used to discern character and how the author drew on ideas concerning sexual difference in the realm of aesthetics to address concerns raised by shifting practices of sociability.