Yeats, W. B. (William Butler), 1865-1939 -- Allusions.
Joyce's Ulysses quotes the poems of Yeats extensively, in a process of allusion carried over from A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, contrasting them with Swinburne and providing Stephen Dedalus with a model for the development of the artist. Yeatsian mythology complements the Homeric structure of the novel, reinforcing the importance of myth to modernity. Yeats within Ulysses is subject to bathos, suggesting the limitations of heroic conceptions, but survives bathos to affirm the relevance of poetic seriousness to ordinary life.
Almost from the moment of his death, the literary reputation of Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester began the precipitous decline from which it has yet to recover. Although regarded by his contemporaries as the finest preacher of the age, the density of his prose style – and, more particularly, his invariable habit of punning in the pulpit – alienated Andrewes's sermons from the tastes of subsequent generations. It is the aim of this article to demonstrate and explore the theological foundations of this wordplay – to suggest that Andrewes's punning is the expression of a fundamentally sacramental imagination. It proposes, finally, that the verbal texture of his sermons can both illuminate and be illuminated by a closer study of Andrewes's devotional imperatives.
While the wounded psyche of Gwendolen Harleth in Daniel Deronda has been the topic of much speculation, critics seem to have missed the key to the puzzle. The only adequate explanation of Gwendolen's hysterical outbursts and crippling dread, which seem so disproportionate to her circumstances, is her experience of incest at the hands of her step-father. This explanation is not only hinted at in the novel, it flows like a sinister stream throughout the novel, clarifying the action and adding a vital dimension to an already intricate text.
Eliot, T. S. (Thomas Stearns), 1888-1965 -- Criticism and interpretation.
In addition to the influence of Dante, T. S. Eliot's poetry was deeply indebted to that of Racine. This becomes clear when all his references to the French dramatist are collated. They show that Eliot regarded Racine as one of the major voices of European literature. In particular, his praise of Bérénice in The use of poetry and the use of criticism indicates the nature of this debt. Eliot focuses on the element of resignation in the play. It is suggested that Eliot's view of tragedy was deeply affected by his own predilection for resignation. This helps to explain his affinity to Racine, though it does not fully account for the power of Racine's poetry itself. The article concludes with a discussion of the ending of Bérénice.