Volume 128, Number 3 (Whole Number 511), Fall 2007
The Pivotal Scene: Narration, Colonial Focalization, and Transition in Odyssey 9 [Access article in PDF] Subject Headings:
Homer. Odyssey. Book 9.
This article studies the Cyclops' scene in the ninth book of the Odyssey in order to demonstrate how the hero's confrontation with the new world and its new rules reflects a fundamental conflict between the values of the heroic age and those of the post-war era. Applying the narratological tools of narration and focalization, the article delineates the hero's convoluted progress toward adaptation to a new reality where formerly privileged values must be replaced. What makes this path especially arduous is the repeated thwarting of all attempts to establish dominance through colonization. The complex nexus of contrasting values culminates in the epic's eponymous hero relinquishing his acquisitive colonialism and drastically modifying his heroic values, thus elevating the humane values of self-restraint and rational conduct based on self-sufficiency to a plane above martial heroism.
The First Catilinarian, in comparison with other Ciceronian political speeches commonly considered invectives, is extraordinarily sparing in its use of the standard invective themes. This article will first demonstrate the remarkable paucity in the speech of the invective loci that Cicero's audiences would properly expect. Then it will offer an explanation for Cicero's restraint grounded in the circumstances of the speech and the expectations of Cicero's audience for the veracity of invective.
A dual semantics in the term repraesentare captures both the rhetorical impact of "vividly recalling" and the economic impact of "immediately paying" and thus is a dynamic way of characterizing certain social and political acts referred to within Latin literature in connection with Cicero, Augustus, and the imperial household. A lexical correspondence between repraesentatio and the function of an effigy of the king (représentation) within the royal funeral of renaissance France cannot be used to claim a continuity with Roman imperial consecrations, but it may help to suggest why the Roman comparison was so evocative within French receptions of Latin texts.
The source texts for Ovid's Heroides often contain precedents for his heroines as message senders at moments in their tradition especially ripe for elegiac refashioning. The first part of this paper suggests that the disputed first word of Heroides 1, a hanc with no apparent referent, signals Penelope's penchant for composing messages, both in Ovid's elegiac letter and in Homer's epic, and functions as a programmatic opening to the collection. The second part more briefly treats letters 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 13 to show how their authors' previous mythographical correspondence also provides points of origin for the Heroides.
Generic oppositions create an interplay of different voices in Satires 12, particularly between the genus tenue, variously nuanced, and the big genres of epic and tragedy. The integrity of the poetic idylls of a lyric Horace is contrasted with the more compromised sanctuary of Juvenal, struggling to accommodate his luxurious friends or, less kindly, practising friendship in a world in which everything is negotiable. Beyond an ahistorical opposition of generic voices emerges a narrative of intertextual influence in which Juvenal is drawn from an idyll of Augustan purity into the mercantile space of his contemporary Martial.