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>> 289 Notes Notes to the Introduction 1. Erica Edwards dissects and troubles the “animating fiction” of charisma and charismatic leadership within twentieth-century African American literature, arguing that it is “a narrative and performative regime that works to discipline even as it enables social change.” Erica R. Edwards, Charisma and the Fictions of Black Leadership (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), x, 72. This project intends to similarly disrupt any easy association between singular leadership and progress by highlighting anthemic performance as a communally employed sound project of rebellion and political advancement among the African descended, while also acknowledging that these anthems expose conditions of conflict and, at times, collusion with structures of Western domination. 2. Jacques Attali, Noise: The Political Economy of Music, trans. Brian Massumi (1970; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985). 3. The 2010 kerfuffle over the status of “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing” as an anthem by literature scholar Timothy Askew, who argued the song was race neutral, is one example of a failed equation for anthemic production. Intention can be only minimally registered and is not a debate that I am interested in pursuing. The importance of these anthems is in their use, something that Askew does not consider. An investigation of performance produces evidence to support the fact that Johnson, for example, was not interested in an open exchange with the U.S. government through his anthem but instead wanted to dialogue with mobilizing communities of aligned difference. Timothy Askew, Cultural Hegemony and African American Patriotism: An Analysis of the Song “Lift Every Voice and Sing” (Deer Park, NY: Linus Publications, 2010). For a response to Askew, see Rudolph P. Byrd, “Song Reflects Racial Pride, Never Intended as Anthem,” CNN Opinion, July 30, 2010, index.html (accessed August 1, 2010). 4. Simon Frith argues that music is a formative experience of identity formation that allows for the development of a self within a collective. Simon Frith, “Music and Identity,” in eds. Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay, Questions of Cultural Identity (London: Sage, 1996), 110. My thinking on the political and theological response impulse within traditional anthems and its relationship to Black anthems was recognized through and indebted to conversation with Fred Moten. 290 > 291 18. My understanding of intracommunal difference and division is informed by Cathy Cohen’s extensive reading of “marginality” within Black communities. See Cathy J. Cohen, The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999). 19. Kyra D. Gaunt, The Games Black Girls Play: Learning the Ropes from DoubleDutch to Hip-Hop (New York: New York University Press, 2006), 14. 20. Guthrie P. Ramsey, Jr., Race Music: Black Cultures from BeBop to Hip-Hop (Berkeley : University of California Press, 2003), xi. 21. Clyde Woods, Development Arrested: Race, Power, and the Blues in the Mississippi Delta (New York: Verso, 1998), 16. 22. Recent scholarship on the convergence of jazz with the Civil Rights Movement, for example, includes Robin D. G. Kelley, Africa Speaks, America Answers: Modern Jazz in Revolutionary Times (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012); Ingrid Monson, Freedom Sounds: Civil Rights Call Out to Jazz and Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); Scott Saul, Freedom Is, Freedom Ain’t: Jazz and the Making of the Sixties (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); Penny Von Eschen, Satchmo Blows Up the World: Jazz Ambassadors Play the Cold War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004). For hip-hop scholarship and youth mobilization, see M. K. Asante, Jr., It’s Bigger Than Hip Hop: The Rise of the Post-Hip-Hop Generation (New York: St. Martin’s, 2009); Andreana Clay, The Hip-Hop Generation Fights Back: Youth Activism and Post-Civil Rights Politics (New York: New York University Press, 2012); Bakari Kitwana, The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture (New York: Basic Civitas, 2002); Imani Perry, Prophets of the Hood: Politics and Poetics in Hip Hop (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004); Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar, Hip Hop Revolution: The Culture and Politics of Rap (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009); S. Craig Watkins, Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Popular Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement (Boston: Beacon, 2005). 23. By “fantastic,” I mean to signal scholar Richard Iton’s use of James Baldwin, who masterfully destabilized the uses of Black popular culture. See Richard Iton, In Search of the Black Fantastic: Politics and...


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