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319 CHAPTER 1. THE INSURGENT BARRICADE Epigraph: “Barricade. s. f. Espece de retranchement qu’on fait ordinairement avec des barriques remplies de terre, pour se deffendre, se mettre à couvert de l’ennemi” (Académie française 1694, 2: 85). This is the earliest formal definition of the term that I have been able to identify. 1. Appendix A catalogs incidents by date and location, indicates pertinent primary and secondary sources, and provides a brief and circumstantial account of what happened , with particular emphasis on the role of barricades. The description of the June 1832 unrest that follows is based largely on contemporary narratives. As is common in insurrectionary situations, even eyewitness accounts differ on essential details such as the order and timing of events. 2. On the history and significance of funerals from the time of the French Revolution, see Ben-Amos 2000, 17–109. 3. The German writer Heinrich Heine, then living in Paris, treated the involvement of Legitimists as an unfounded rumor (Heine [1832] 1994, 188). However, it is difficult to discount the categorical statements by well-informed observers of opposing political views like the préfet de police Henri Gisquet (1840, 2: 197, 202–3) and the socialist Louis Blanc ([1830–40] 1846, 3: 270). 4. Many of these elements were borrowed from the 1827 procession for Manuel. Induction into the Panthéon had also been demanded by the mourners at Constant’s funeral in 1830. Culminating a successful uprising with a visit to the Hôtel de Ville had been a ritual element of Parisian insurrections since 1789 and was a notable feature of both the 1830 and 1848 revolutions. On these specific aspects of the 1832 events, see Gisquet 1840, 2: 207–9. 5. Heine [1832] 1884, 214. See ibid. for many of the details in this account, supplemented by Gisquet 1840, vol. 2. Notes 320 notes to pages 3 – 7 6. Lucas-Dubreton 1932, 162. The source of that shot in June 1832 has never been established , any more than it has been possible to ascertain who set in motion the bloodshed in Nantes in July 1830, the February 22, 1848, massacre in the boulevard des Capucines in Paris, or the deadly Berlin rioting that followed in both March and June, among the many nineteenth-century barricade events cataloged in appendix A that began in similar fashion. 7. Le National, June 9, 1832. 8. No esoteric skills were required to build a barricade, but professional knowledge was always welcome. During the 1832 insurrection, Martin Nadaud, who had arrived in the capital just two years earlier to seek employment as a seasonal construction worker, helped build a barricade in the rue Saint-Martin. He also related how, soon after the defeat of the uprising in June 1832, he and three of his fellow masons received a heartfelt round of applause at a meeting of the local chapter of the Société des droits de l’homme after volunteering that they knew where to get their hands on crowbars, hammers, and planks should the need to build barricades arise again. See Nadaud [1895] 1976, 256–57. 9. See “Détails des troubles,” 1, 3–4; “Détails exacts,” 1; Relation des événements; “Nouveaux détails très-exacts,” 1 (all 1839); Blanc [1830–40] 1846, 3: 283. Bouchet 2000, 17, cites a request to the mayor of the then eighth arrondissement by two arms dealers for military protection of their establishments “to prevent so large a quantity of arms from falling into the hands of troublemakers.” 10. Bouchet 2000, 17, and Gisquet 1840, 2: 213–17, estimate that insurgents thus obtained 4,000 rifles and a large quantity of ammunition. Bouchet’s reconstruction of events, undoubtedly the most comprehensive available, is noteworthy, not only for the range of published and archival sources on which he draws, but also because his account succeeds in conveying the sense of contingency that obtained as events were unfolding. 11. Blanc [1830–40] 1846, 3: 277, 281, emphasizes the insurgents’ early efforts to fraternize with soldiers, reporting one encounter in which an officer of the 12th light infantry confided to a student leader of the procession, “I am a republican; you can count on us.” The number of those who engaged in actual combat is a matter of some dispute. Roughly 1,000 were detained after the fighting had ended, but the sheer number of arrests is typically an imprecise indicator of the size of an uprising. 12. See Bouchet...


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