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FrRevol_751-810.indd 19 3/16/12 1:18 PM Index Persons whose names begin with prefixes such as d', de, du, l', and van will be found under the main element of the name (e.g., Barante, Prosper de) unless that element is considered by common usage or spelling an integral part of the name (e.g., Dupont de Nemours; La Fayette). Aboukir, battle of, 425 absolute government: in England, 63538 , 640-46; in European history, 2124 ; in France, xviii, 20, 21, 37-38, 41, 47, 94n5, 99- 97; French national character or spirit affected by, 730--38; liberty as more ancient than, 28; literature under, 730--31; Madame de Stael's hatred of, xviii, 18; Napoleon's progress to, 441-47; Necker's detestation of, 480. See also Reign of Terror absolute royal veto, 213-15 Achilles, 266, 6or Acton, Lord, 173-74nr, 179n2, 189n5, 200n1, 200n3, 214n5, 216nr, 217n2, 23on8, 239n9 "Acts of the Apostles" (Rivarol and Peltier), '95 Adams, John Quincy, xxiii Albigenses (Cathars), 236 d'Alembert, Jean le Rond, viii, 53nr, 475ll2 Alexander the Great, 685, 714 Alexander I (tsar): absolute government in Russia and, 23, 731-32; Allies' entry into Paris, ))2, 553- 60; defeat of Napoleon , p6-28, 533, 534; in England, 6p; Holy Alliance, 745; Madame de Stael and, vii, xi, xxiii, p6--28 Alexander VI (pope), 29nr5 Allies (Napoleonic wars): Congress of Vienna, 564, 582, 598, 615, 709, 744, 745n3; entry into Paris, 553-60; French desire to avenge defeat by, 610; Napoleon's campaign against, winter of r8r4, 558; occupation of Paris, 565--68; Treaty of Pleiswitz, 650 Allison (English religious dissenter), 342 d'Ambert, Marquis, 404-5 America, Central and Latin, independence movements in, 710 America (United States): Bill of Rights and Declaration of Independence, 184; British disdain for, 707-8; cost of Revolutionary War to English, 6o; Dupont de Nemours in, xxii, 282, 400, 403-4; French involvement in Revolutionary War, 72-73, 128; La Fayette in, 73, 182- 83; Lameth in, 272n9; Madame de Stael's views on, xxii- xxiv, 707-8; in Napoleonic wars, 649; Napoleon's plan to flee to, 623n3; Necker on English monarchy and government of, 465; religion and political liberty in, 737; religious toleration in, 356, 453; slavery in, 707; Thomas Paine's offer of refuge to Louis XVI, 339; Volney in, 562n3 Amiens, Treaty of, 448, 449-50 d'Ancre, Madame (Leonora Dori), 35 FrRevol_751-810.indd 20 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX Anne (queen of England), 646-47, 700 Anne of Cleves, 636 Aragon. See Spain arbitrary government. See absolute government D'Arblay, Madame (formerly Miss Burney ), 699 Archimedes, 582 Arena, Monsieur, 432 Ariosto, Ludovico, 421 Aristides, 753 aristocracy: Boulainvilliers on, 99; in England, 344, 635, 638-39, 6)3-5), 671-72; in European history, 19-20; in France (see French aristocracy); Madame de Stael's views on, 18; monarchy, relationship to, 284 armchair decree, 299-3oom armed forces. See French military; military , English arms, right to bear, 504-5 d'Artois, Comte, 79, 107, 110 arts and sciences. See education and knowledge; literature assassination: in England, 639-40; in France, 26- 27, 227-28, 311, 397, 4)1- )2; Muslim sect of Assassins, 355m; in Russia, 227 Assembly. See Constituent Assembly; Legislative Assembly Assembly of Notables, 34, 39, 86-89, 102, 12D-22, 131n6 assignats (paper money), 25)-)6, 384-85 atomization, social, and collective (group) individualism, 4m32, 287n4, 444n4 Attila, 487 Augeard, Monsieur, 78- 79m Augereau, General, 394, 399 Augsburg, Confession of, 22 August 10, 1792, overthrow of French monarchy on, 285, 321-23 Augustus (Roman emperor), 730 Austria: Allies' entry into Paris, ))3-6o; French declaration of war against (1792), 307; League of the Holy Alliance , 197n4, 745n3; Madame de Stael in, xi; Napoleonic wars, 448n2, sor, sn-6o; victories in Italy, 424; war against revolutionary France, 306-ro, 32), 36), 386 Autun, Talleyrand as Bishop of, 250, 256 Avignon, massacres of, 312 Bacon, Sir Francis, r8 Bailleul, Jacques-Charles, xxi, 173m, 247ll2,462n9 Baillie, Miss, 699 Bailli of Virieu (envoy of Parma), 329-30 Bailly, Jean Sylvain, 164, 361 Bajazet, 26n3 Balaye, Simone, xxvii, 4o8n3 ballet. See Psyche banishment. See emigrants and emigration ; exile Bank of France, 256 Barante, Prosper de, ix, 238n7 barbarian tribes, r8, 28 Barbe-Marbois, Fran<;ois, 400, )6rnr Barentin, Monsieur de, 131, 132 Barnave, Monsieur, 201, 202, 262, 272, 282, 306, 308 Barras, Monsieur, 373, 382, 384, 391m, 398, 402,403, 40),412, 414,429 Barthelemy, Monsieur, 391m, 398 Basel, Treaty of, 377 Bastille, fall of, r63 Bastille Day (July 14, 1789): anniversary , celebration of(1792), 316-r8; events of, 162- 64 battles: Aboukir, 425; Culloden, 647, 737; Granson, 418; Hastings, 498; La Hogue, 289; Leipzig, nrm6, 556; Marengo, 448, 458, 491; St. Jeand 'Acre, 426; Trafalgar, 674; Valmy, JJO FrRevol_751-810.indd 21 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX 307-8n4, 333n4, 346m; Waterloo, 196n4, )3Ini), 621, 623, 675, 715 Baumets, Briois de, 325 Bazire, Monsieur, 301, 302n4, 309 Beauharnais, Josephine de, 408, p on5 Beaumont, Madame de, 131 Bedford, Duke of, 670 Bedford, Earl of, 350, 3)I Belgium, French occupation of, 3o8n4, 346 Bell, Andrew, 678 Bentham, Jeremy, 275n, 684 Bernadette, General (Prince Royal of Sweden), 393, 404- 5, 424, 428, 487, 555-57, )66m Berthier, Marshall, 501 Besenval, Baron de, 171 Beugnot, Monsieur, 301 bicameralism, 213, 217- 19, 379, 5)In6 Billaud-Varennes, Monsieur, 329, 373 Bill of Rights: American, 184; English, I)6m, 184, 627n2; French, 627 Biroteau, Monsieur, 338 Blacas d'Aups, Pierre de, 583, 593 Blackstone, William, 98n5 Boileau, Monsieur, 40 Bois[e]gelin, Cardinal, 238n6 Boissy d'Anglas, Frans:ois Antoine de, 379, )62 Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, 543-44 Bolivar, Simon, 755n3 Bollmann, Dr., 326 Bonald, Louis de, xxi, 96m Bonaparte, Jerome (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte), 492 Bonaparte, Joseph (brother of Napoleon Bonaparte), 427, 428, 466m5, pm6, 612n2 Bonaparte, Louis (brother of Napoleon Bonaparte), )I), )23 Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte; later Napoleon III, first president and last emperor of France), 492m, 515 Bonaparte, Lucien (brother of Napoleon Bonaparte), 427, 428, 432, 433, )23 Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Napoleon Bonaparte Boniface VIII (pope), 29m2 Bossuet, Jacques-Benigne, 40, 237, 631 Bouille, Monsieur de, 261-62 Boulainvilliers, Henri de, 19n3, 28, 9899 , 287n3 Bourbon Restoration, xii-xiii; Allies' entry into Paris, 553-6o; aristocracy under, 573, 578-8o, 593- 97, 602-3; arts and sciences revived under, 6nm; Chamber of Deputies, 194m, 503, 55m6, 728; Chamber of Peers, 564, 602-3, 623m; Chamber of Representatives , 602, 626-27; Chambre introuvable, 48mr, 728n6; Charter of 1814, declaration of, 569-74 (see also Charter of 1814); clergy under, 572, 588-89, 6or; emigrants and, )88, 6oo; English Restoration compared, 549- )I, 564, 6or, 6o8-9; finances, administration of, 681-82; First Restoration, circumstances of establishment of, 561- 64; freedom of the press under, 194m, 576-77, 6o4, 6n; Henri IV's accession compared, 549, 551, 6oo; importance of representative government for, 549-)2, 560, 602-3; liberals during, 6o)-II; military under, 581, 583- 85, 586-87, 599-6oo; ministry, choice of, 604-7; ministry, conduct of, 575- 85; ministry, obstacles encountered by, 586-91; ministry, proper course of, 598-6o7; Napoleon, means of preventing return of, 5986o7 ; Parisian society under, 593-97; political doctrine of ultraconservatives under, 542-48, 576m; provincial J:JZ FrRevol_751-810.indd 22 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX Bourbon Restoration (continued) authority and administration under, 6o2; public employment and offices under, 581-82, 589-90; religion under, 58o-81; Second Restoration, 627n2. See also Charter of 1814 bourgeoisie, development of, 20--21 Breteuil, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier, Baron de, 89, 147-48, 163, 165-66 Brienne, Lomenie de, Archbishop of Toulouse (later Sens), 89-95, II2-I4, I2I, I)8, 237n) Brissot, Jacques-Pierre, 301 Britain. See England British and Foreign Bible Society, 684-85 Broglie, Victor de, xi, xxvii, 3m Broglio, Marshall, 158 Brougham, Henry, 683n6, 684 Brunswick, manifesto of Duke of, 319-20 Brutus, 582, 753 Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerq, Comte de,42 Burgundy, John the Fearless, Duke of, 26 Burke, Edmund: on assignats, 255m; Considerations as response to, xiv, xv; on Constituent Assembly, qon3, 178n1, I80n3, 191- 92niO, 242- 43nn23 ; demise of France predicted by, 534; English constitution recommended for France, 306-7; on executive power, 246m; fear that French Revolution will spread to England, 22om; Fox and, 3p; on French nobles adopting cause of representative government , 726n3; influence on Madame de Stael, xix, 54m; Lally-Tollendal, correspondence with, 167n5; literary style in politics, criticism of, 145n2; on Necker, 166; in Parliament, 67o; on philosophical fanaticism, 54m; public indignation against France incited by, 387; on reasons for French Revolution, xiv, xv, 25mo; on revolutionary societies in England, 347n3; on Warren Hastings, 704n3 Burney, Fanny (Madame D'Arblay), 699 Byron, George Gordon, Lord, vii, 684 Cabanis, Pierre Jean Georges, 266, 454, )62 Cadiz, Constitution of, 572n5 Caesar, Julius, 429 Calas, Monsieur, 66o Calonne, Monsieur de, 83-89, 91, w7, 122 Cambaceres (Carbaceres), Monsieur, 442 Camisards, War of, 27n7 Campbell, Thomas, 684 Campo Formio, Treaty of, 392, 407 Camus, Monsieur, 257 Capelle, Monsieur, 527n5 capitalism, rise of, 41 capital punishment, 188, 190, 66o capitularia, I 9 Carnot, Monsieur, 36m5, 384, 39m2, 398 Carrier, Jean-Baptiste, 378 Casales (Cazales), Monsieur de, q8, 200 Cassius, 582 Castellane-Novejean, Comte de, 233, 322 Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount, 709-IO, 714-I), 719 Castries, Duke of, 593 Castries, Marechal de, 76, 89 Cathars (Albigenses), 236 Catherine de Medicis (queen of France), 33, 230n7, 3II Catherine II the Great (empress of Russia ), 82, n8, 730 Catholic Relief Act of 1829 (England), 72In2 Catiline, 173 Cato, 259, 429, 598, 753 JJ2 FrRevol_751-810.indd 23 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX Cazales (Casales), Monsieur de, 138, 200 Central America, independence movements in, 710 Cevennes, war of the, 27, 38,236,715 Ceylon, 448n2 Chabot, Monsieur, 301, 309 Chamber of Deputies, 194ni, ssrn6, 6o3, 623n2,728 Chamber of Peers: arguments for creation of, 723- 29; under Bourbon Restoration , 564, 602- 3, 623n2; constitutional House of Peers, Constituent Assembly's defeat of, 213, 218; under Napoleon, 464, 620, 623n2 Chamber of Representatives (Bourbon Restoration), 6o2, 626- 27 Chambre introuvable, 48rm, 728n6 Champs-de-Mai (Champs-de-Mars), 19, 28, 2)0, 273, 317-18 Chapelier, Monsieur Le, 238n6, 272, 282 character or spirit, national: English, 671-76, 693-96; French (see French national spirit or character); Irish, 68o Charalois, Count of, 190 Charette de Ia Comrie, Franc,:ois de, 365 Charlemagne, 19, 20, 107, 487 Charles I (king of England), 24, 73, 339, 341- 4), 346, 3)1, 3)8, 638- 39, 7)1 Charles II (king of England), 549-sr, )64, 6o8, 640-42, 683, 700, 71)-16 Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor), 22, 26n4, 30-31, 100 Charles V (king of France), 26, 29, 100, 107 Charles VI (king of France), 101-2, 540 Charles VII (king of France), 26n3, 31 Charles VIII (king of France), 29, 3onr6, 31 Charles IX (king of France), 30n17, 102, 311, )70, )71, 742 Charles X (king of France), rsrn7, 304 Charles XI (king of Sweden), 22 Charles Edward (Bonny Prince Charlie ), 598, 647 Charter of r8r4, 569- 74; Beugnot's role in drafting, 3oom; dating to 19th year of Louis XVIII's reign, 569m; Declaration of St. Ouen, 149, 149n2, 297, ssrn6, 564, 569; Edict of Nantes compared , ssr; English constitution compared , 128-29n2, p6m, 6or; equal representation of Third Estate, Louis XVIII's early support for, 122n4; formal declaration of, )70-71; goals of, ))rn6; liberal perspective on history and, 27n8; Madame de Stael's admiration for and concerns about, xii; ministry of First Restoration and, )76, p8; principles ofconstitutional monarchy inspiring, xii, 534nr9; problems with, 6or-2, 610-u; Tocqueville on, 6o2n3 Chateaubriand, Franc,:ois Rene de, vii Chateauvieux regiment, mutiny of, 312 Chatham, William Pitt, First Earl of, 42, 2 )9, 732 Chaumont de Ia Galasiere, Monsieur, I)2n7 Chayla, Achille du, 368- 69 Chenier, Marie-Joseph, 403-4, 412, 462n9 Cheuvreuse, Hermesinde de NarbonnePelet , Duchess of, 470n3 Chinon, Count of (later Duke of Richelieu ), 226-27 Choiseul, Duchess of, 45 Choiseul, Etienne-Franc,:ois, Duke of, 45- 46, )2, 27on6 Choiseul-Gouffier, Comte de, 228 Chollet, Monsieur, 562 Chouans, 4sr Christian II (king of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden), 22 773 FrRevol_751-810.indd 24 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX church, property of, 189, 192, 235-39, )88 Churchill, John, Duke of Marlborough, 6)4 Cicero, 173, 415, 429 Cid, the, 171 Cisalpine Republic, 519 Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 189n5, 239n9 civil jurisprudence in England, 664 Clarkson, Thomas, 706 classical history and civilization, 18 Claviere, Monsieur, 175n3 clergy: in England, 236-37, 669; in France (see French clergy) Clermont-Tonnerre, Monsieur, 141n3, 179, 233, 263 Club of 1789, 263 Code Napoleon, )06-w, 517n2 Coigny, Chevalier de, 150 Colbert, Jean Baptiste, 53, 76 coldness of English nature, 693-94 Coligny (Coligni), Gaspard de, 27n5, 33, 17), 732 Collaud, General, 562 collective (group) individualism and social atomization, 41n32, 287n4, 444n4 Collot d'Herbois, Jean-Marie, 329, 351, 373 Committee of Inquiries, 197 Committee of Public Safety, 286m, 360, 36In), 371, 375 Compte rendu (Necker), viii, 62-63, 87n5 Conde, Prince de, 33 Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de, 301-2, 327, 328, 360, 361, 47)n2 Confession of Augsburg, 22 Congreve, William, 642 Considerations on France (Maistre), xiv, 5on8 Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution (Madame de Stael): ideas contained in, xii- xx; liberal analysis used in, xii-xiv, xxi, 27n8; notes on present edition of, xxv-xxviii; original advertisement of the author, 5; original notice by editors , 3-4; original table of contents, 7-15; original title page, r; public reception of, xx-xxii; writing and publication of, x-xi, xxvi- xxvii, 3-4 Constant, Benjamin: Barente and, 238n7; on direct vs. indirect elections, 278n7; on economic liberalism, 498n3; on freedom of the press, 194m; on French national character and spirit, I4om; inviolability of king, importance of legal fiction of, 301n1; liberal position of, xii, )8m, 498n3; on limits on authority of representative assemblies, 178m; Madame de Stael and, ix, xn7, xxv; modern interest in, xxv; on Napoleon 's return, 619m- 3; on property qualifications for right to vote, 277n5; on public opinion, 58m; on reelection of representatives, 279n9; on republican government, 38om2, 398n3, 402nr; on trial by jury, r88n3; as tribune ,462 Constituent Assembly, xv-xvi, 178-8r; administrative errors of, 207-10; aristocracy , suppression of titles of, 24245 ; aristocracy in, 199- 2oo, 232-33, 279-80; clergy, decrees regarding, 189, 192, 235-41; clergy in, 2oo, 236n3; constitution, errors with regard to, 2II-I); English model for constitution, 216- r9; executive powers , fear of, 2II-I2, 246, 26o-6r; executive powers taken on by, 207; financial matters, errors in, 208-w; 774 FrRevol_751-810.indd 25 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX freedom of the press under, 194-98; French finances and, 191-92, 208- 10; good effected by, 186-93; Legislative Assembly compared, 304; military, decrees regarding, 261-62; Mirabeau in, 173-77; monarchy, limits placed on, 246-48, 26o-61, 268-69; Napoleonic remnants of, 493; paper money (assignats), creation of, 2))-)6; Parisian society during time of, 2)2- )4; parties in, 199- 206, 26o-64; police ministry lacking, 196-97; removal to Paris, 224, 231-34; self-dissolution of, 279n9 Constituent Assembly, executive powers : assumption of, 207; fear of, 21112 , 246, 26o-61; limitation of powers of monarchy, 246-48; Necker on, viii, 212n2,246, 293-94,298,389- 91 constitution, English: Burke's recommendation of to French, 306-7; Charter of 1814 compared, 128-29n2, p6m, 601; compared to government in France, 104-6; as foundation of constitutional monarchy, 723-29; France, adaptability in, 723-29; French attempts to model, 216-19, 263-64, 265, 295; Necker on, 216-19, 29) constitution, French: Charter of 1814 (see Charter of 1814); Constitution of 1791 (see Constitution of 1791); Constitution of 1793, 359; Constitution of Year III, 379-So, 38onii; Consular Constitution (Constitution of Year VIII), 436-40, 442; before Revolution (see constitution in France before Revolution); Senate committee to draft (1814), )6mi, 562 constitution, Spanish, 572n5 constitutionalist party, 30o-301, 321- 22 constitutional monarchy: in England, xx, 723-29; European approval of establishment in France, 306-7; foundations of, 723-29; French rejection of, 2II- 13, 219; justification of principles in Considerations, xiii; Louis XVIII's belief in, 125, 149, 534, ))2, 560, 56364 ; Louis XVI's suitability for, I))- )6; popular desire for, 316; representative form of government favored in Considerations, xix-xx constitutional oath, proscription of clergy not taking, 304, 313 constitution in France before Revolution : contemporary French debate over, 10)-II; England compared, 104- 6; existence of, xvi, )O, 96-III; oppressive nature of government, 9799 ; overriding principles, lack of, 9697 ; parlements and Estates General, powers of, 99-104; provinces, incorporation of, 96, 99-100; rule oflaw, lack of, 104 Constitution of 1791: acceptance of, 281-84; Constituent Assembly's errors with regard to, 211-I); English constitution as model, 216-19, 26364 , 265, 295; executive powers under, 246-48; final revisions to, 273-So; inviolability of sovereign under, 27374 ; unicameralism vs. bicameralism, 213, 217-19 Consulate: Constitution of Year VIII, 436- 40, 442; Necker on, 458-67; revolution of 18th Brumaire establishing, 428-3) Convention, 375-83 convulsionnaires, 43 Corday, Charlotte, 316m Corneille, Pierre, 507, 567 Cornwallis, Lord, 704 Corsican, Napoleon as, 434n8, 469, 491, 62) FrRevol_751-810.indd 26 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX corvee, abolition of, 49, 191, 336 Council of Ancients, 379, 397, 431- 32, 436 Council of Five Hundred, 379, 427, 431-33, 436 Council of State, 439, 462, 463, 485, 507, ;r6, 524 coup d'etat of r8 Fructidor (September 4, 1797), 391m; events of, 396- 401; Madame de Stael and, 402-6; proscriptions under, 402-6 court etiquette in the modern world, 596 Cousin, Monsieur, 62n8 Cowper, William, 672-73, 684 credit and loans: Calonne's use of, 8;; connection to rule of law, 59; Constituent Assembly and, 2o8; French Crown's reliance on, ;o-)2, 59- 6r; paper money (assignats), 255-56 Crillon, Marquis de, 129, 233 criminal justice: Constituent Assembly's modifications to, 186-89, 247; in England, 659- 64 Cromwell, Oliver, 337, 349, 351, 358, 372, 382, 424, 488, 549, 610, 639, 645, 676, 716 Crusades, 29, 3onr9 Culloden, battle of, 647, 737 Curchod, Suzanne (Madame Necker), vii-viii, 53, 6;, 78, 8o, r6r, r66, 224, 228, 2)9, 417 Czernitchef, Alexandre 1., ;or d'Alembert, Jean le Rond, viii, )3ni, 47)n2 Dalrymple, James, 641 d'Ambert, Marquis, 404-5 Dambray, Chancellor, 570 Damien, Monsieur, 66r Dampierre, Monsieur, 596 d'Ancre, Madame (Leonora Dori), 35 Dante, 357, )28 Danton, Georges Jacques, p2n2, 340n9, 372 D'Arblay, Madame (formerly Miss Burney ), 699 d'Artois, Comte, 79, 107, riO Darwin, Charles, 755n3 Daunou, Pierre Claude Fran<;ois, 379, 462 death penalty, r88, 190, 66o Debry, Monsieur, 3r)n8 Declaration of Independence (American ), r84 Declaration of Rights (English), r)6m, 184 Declaration of Rights (Virginia), r84n3 Declaration of Rights of Chamber of Representatives (French, r8r 5), 626- 27 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen (French, 1789), r84-85, 2III2nr , 217, 224n2, 225, 6osn8, 627n2 Declaration of St. Ouen, 149, 149n2, 297, ))ln6, 564, 569 decrees. See laws and decrees Deffand (Deffant), Marie de VichyChambrond , Marquise of, 475, 699 Delmas, General, 456n3 Delphine (Madame de Stael), ix democracy, as new type of society, 6o6n9 Demosthenes, 210, 415 d'Enghien, Due, 458, 484-85, 507 Denmark, 22-23, 28, 368n despotism. See absolute government d'Espremenil, Duval, 93 Devonshire, Duke of, 6)7, 670 d'Holbach, Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron, viii, 53nr Diderot, Denis, viii, 53nr, 8rn Directory, 384-88; constitution of, 3798o , 38onrr; Council of Ancients, 379, 397, 431-p, 436; Council of Five FrRevol_751-810.indd 27 3/16/12 1:18 PM INDEX Hundred, 379, 427, 431, 436; coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor (September 4, 1797) (see coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor ); establishment of, 379-83; exclusion , decree of 2d Brumaire of, 38283 ; Napoleon's reception by (December 10, 1797), 411-13; Necker's predictions regarding, 38992 , 397; period of, 375m; plans to invade England, 401, 412n6, 414-1 5; revolution of 18th Brumaire, 428-35; Switzerland, invasion of, 401, 415-21, 425; termination of, 422-24, 428- 35; war with European powers, 386-88, 401, 407,4I2n6,4I4-21 direct vs. indirect elections, 278- 79 divine right of kings. See absolute government divorce trials in England, 686-88 domiciliary visits, 325-26 Dori, Leonora (Madame d'Ancre), 35 d'Ormesson, Monsieur, 83, 87 d'Ossat, Arnaud, 35 dragonnades, 27, 38 Du Barry, Countess, 736 Dubois, Cardinal, 106, 732, 743 Ducos, Monsieur, 423n3, 436m Dufresne de Saint-Leon, Monsieur, 165 Dugommier, Marshal, 363, 596 Dumas, Mathieu, 301 Dumont, Monsieur, 175n3, 275n Dumouriez, General, 334, 346n2 Duplessis-Mornay, Philippe, 35 Dupont de Nemours, Pierre Samuel, xxii, 282, 400, 403-4 Duport, Adrien, 201- 2, 262, 272, 308 Duras, Duke and Duchess of, 489 Dutch. See Holland East India Company, 51 economic liberalism, 498n3 Edgeworth, Miss, 699 Edinburgh Review, 683n6 education and knowledge: in England, 589, 677-83, 685; in France, 68, 241, 589, 603, 611m; in Germany, 735; in India, 705; of women, 686 Edward, Prince (Charles Edward, or Bonny Prince Charlie), 598, 647 Edward I (king of England), 635 Edward II (king ofEngland), 639 Edward III (king of England), 29, 642 Edward V (king ofEngland), 639 Edward VI (king of England), 637 Egeria, IJ3-54n8 Egmont, Lamora!, Count of, 753 Egypt: ancient Egypt, 63o; English in, 448m, 703; Napoleonic invasion and conquest of, 414-15, 425-27, 448n2, )2) Elba, Napoleon's exile to, 501, 564 elections: Constitution of 1791 on French elections, 277-79; direct vs. indirect, 278-79; in England, 668- 69; property qualifications on right to vote, 277-78 Elizabeth (sister of Louis XVI), 230, 272, 314, 361 Elizabeth I (queen ofEngland), 637-38, 677,730 emigrants and emigration, 285- 90; amnesties obtained by La Fayette with regard to, 281-82; of aristocracy, 28)- 88, 344; under Bourbon Restoration , )88, 6oo; confiscation of property of, 304; European powers' war against France encouraged by emigrants , 307; exclusion, decree of 2d Brumaire of, 382- 83; of French army officers, 333; Madame de Stael's emigration to Switzerland, 327-32, 612n2; Necker on proscribed emigrant list, 389, 417, 420; penalties against, 282m, 285, 304, 382- 83, 389; :JTJ FrRevol_751-810.indd 28 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX emigrants and emigration (continued) permission to return, 377; political principles of, 542-48; property, sequestration of, 304, 6oo; proscription after coup d'etat of I 8 Fructidor, 402-6; Quiberon, killing of emigrants at, 387-88, 584; Reign of Terror and, 285, 367-70; royal family's attempts to emigrate, 223, 225-26, 268-72; voluntary vs. forced, 285. See also exile empire, Napoleonic, 483-90. See also Napoleon Bonaparte; Napoleonic wars Encyclopedists, 91 Enghien, Due d', 458, 484-85, 507 England: absolute government in, 63538 , 64o-46; Allies' entry into Paris, 553-6o; ancient origins of representative government in, 28; aristocracy of, 344, 635, 638-39, 653-55, 671-72; Charles I's reign and civil war, 34145 , 638-39; civil jurisprudence in, 664; civil war, factors influencing, 358; compared to France, 104-6; criminal justice in, 659-64; Declaration of Rights and Bill of Rights, 156n2; Directory's plans to invade, 401, 412n6, 414-15; disdain for America , 707-8; divisions of Estates General compared to houses of Parliament, 119-20; education and knowledge in, 589, 677-83, 685; English passion for equality, 638, 672; entry into Paris with Allies, 553-6o; finances in, 649- 58, 665-66; foreign policy and affairs of, 702-16; France, recent conduct toward, 708-18; freedom of the press in, 194, 195, 683, 68)-86, 695; Glorious Revolution (r688), 24, 184, 2II, 607, 634, 635, 64om7, 722; government of, 665-71, 681, 720-21; Henry VIII's reign, 2122 ; hereditary succession in, 538-39; historical and political development of, 21-22, 24, 634- 48; impressment of seamen, 664-65; incitement of French Revolution, 22o-21; in India, 415, )2), 704-5; literature in, 642, 683-84, 699; Madame de Stael in, 649-51, 656-58, 696-7or; Madame de Stael's admiration for government of, xixxx , 24n9, 42; Napoleonic wars, 448- )2, 49)-98, ))J-60, 621- 24, 649-)8, 708-16; national spirit or character, 671-76, 693-96; Necker's admiration for government of, 54; patriotism in, 673-74; prosperity of, 649-58; public opinion/publicity in, 656, 666, 667, 674- 75, 681-82, 684; Rebellion of 1745, 598, 647, 737; Reform Act of r8JI-32, 668-69, 720-21; relationship between nobility and commons in, 137; relationship between power and governmental system, 481; religion and political liberty in, 358, 550, 63637 , 683- 86, 737; Restoration, 549-51, 564, 6o1, 6o8-9, 640-42; revolutionary societies in, 22om, 347; separation and balance of powers in, 261; Tories and Whigs, 349; war with revolutionary France, 306-ro, 346-53, 365, 386-88, 401, 412n6, 414; women in, 2)2-)3, 686-88, 689, 691-94, 696, 699-701, 736. See also Charles I; Charles II; Cromwell, Oliver English clergy, 236-37, 669 English constitution. See constitution, English English liberty: conditions contributing to, 659-76, 682; potential loss of, 717-22 English military, 347, 503, 718-20 English Parliament, 104-6, 665-71, 68r, 720-21 FrRevol_751-810.indd 29 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX English society and social order, 252-53, 592, 59), 689-701 entailment, 693-94 Epaminondas, 753 equality: English passion for, 638, 672; French love of, 244-45, 486 equalization of taxation, 49, 5), 63, 86, 13), 189 Erskine, Lord Thomas, 542-43, 662-64 Eschines, 210 l'Espinasse, Mademoiselle de, 699 d'Espn'!menil, Duval, 93 Essai sur Ia noblesse (Boulainvilliers), 99n6 Essling, Prince of (Andre Massena), 487 Estates General: Brienne, ministry of, 89-95; Calonne, ministry of, 83- 90; convention of 1576, II)-r6; convention of r614, II)-17, 123n; division into three orders, 117n3, uS-25, 134; England compared, 104-6; powers of, 96- 97, 100-101, 103-4; taxation, right of sanctioning, 86, 103; total conventions of, 103. See also Estates General , last convention of 1789; French aristocracy; French clergy; Third Estate Estates General, last convention of 1789, 94; agitation of Third Estate for, 95; conduct of Third Estate during, 14043 ; demands of Third Estate for equal representation at, uS, 121-2); European public opinion at time of, 128; joining of National Assembly by clergy and nobility, 157-58; Necker and, 68-69, 112, 117, 122-27, 132-33, 135; opening of (May), 1789), 12933 ; resistance of aristocracy and clergy to Third Estate's demands, 134-39; royal session (June 23, 1789), 143, 147-54; troops called to disperse, 158-6o "Eulogy on Colbert" (Necker), 53 European civilization, history of, 17-25 European powers and Napoleon, war between. See Napoleonic wars European public opinion at time of Estates General convention of 1789, !28 Examen critique (Sieyes), 96m exclusion, decree of 2d Brumaire of, 382- 83 executive powers, Constituent Assembly . See Constituent Assembly, executive powers exile: Elba, Napoleon's exile to, )OI, 564; of Madame de Stael under Napoleon, x, xi-xii, 459, 466, 468-73, 477- 78, 565; Napoleon's use of, 46873 ; of Necker, 88-89, 159, 16o-62, 258-59· See also emigrants and emigration fanaticism: in India, 704-5; philosophical , 54; religious, 354- 56 Faublas (Louvet de Couvray), 379 Federalists, 364 Federation of 1790, 249-51 feminism, current relevance of Madame de Stael for, xxvi Fenelon, Fran~ois, 19n3, 39, )II Ferdinand VII (king of Spain), pm6, 539n3, )72, 7IOnll feudal system: in Europe, 18-21; in France, 28-30, 55; suppression of feudal rights in France, 216-17 Feuillants, 2om), 272n9, 312n2 finances: English, 649-58, 665-66; French (see French finances) Fitz-Patrick, General, 349 Flaugergues, Monsieur, 531 Fleuri (Fleury), Andre-Hercule, Cardinal de, 43, 237n5, 732 Fleury, Monsieur Joly de, 83, 87, 102 :7:79 FrRevol_751-810.indd 30 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Fouche, Joseph, Duke of Otrante, 484n2,6r2n2 Fourqueux, Bouvard de, 89-90 Fox, Charles (historical author), 6oS Fox, Charles James: burial in Westminster Abbey, 673; education and knowledge of, 677; Lord Holland, 706; Louis XVI and, 27o; Napoleonic wars, 347-53, 450; Necker compared, 482; opponents of, 667 Francis I (king of France), 26, 27, p, roo, 236 Fran<;:ois de Paris, 43n37 Franklin, Benjamin, xxiii Franks, 28, 99 Frederic[k] II the Great of Prussia, 59, 82, !28, 730 Frederick William II (king of Prussia), 307n2 freedom. See liberty Free Thinkers, 239 French aristocracy: under Bourbon Restoration , 573, 578-So, 593-97, 602- 3; Chouans, 451; in Constituent Assembly , 199-2oo, 232-33, 279-8o; constitutional monarchy and, 723- 29; demands of Third Estate, resistance to, 134-39; emigration of, 285-88, 344; equalization of taxes, 49, 55, 63, 86; estate names, renunciation of, 243; under Louis XIV, 37; Napoleon and, 487-90; new nobilityI gentry, problem of, r19- 20, 137-38, 537-41; officers, noble birth required of, 92, 190; at opening of last Estates General , 129-30; percentage of population , 5rn9; powers of, 97, ro4; privileges removed by Constituent Assembly, 189-91; public opinion on accession of Louis XVI and, 45-47; in representative government, 68, rr9-20; Richelieu's fettering of, 3537 , 102, 545, 635; superficial education of, 68, 677; suppression of titles by Constituent Assembly, 242-45; women, influence of, 75, 377, 406. See also Chamber of Peers French clergy: allegiance to pope, p, II5- r6, 244; under Bourbon Restoration , 572, 588-89, 6or; in Constituent Assembly, 200, 236n3; Constituent Assembly's decrees regarding, r89, 192, 235-41; constitutional oath, proscription of those not taking, 304, 313; demands of Third Estate, resistance to, 134-39; education, responsibility for, 241, 589, 6o3; equalization of taxes, 49, 55, 63, 86; in French government , 237; lack of public confidence in, 42, 43, 45, 69, 129-30; La Trappe, monks of, 368; under Louis XIV, 41; management of public affairs, involvement in, 47; Napoleon 's concordat with Papacy and, 453- 57; Necker's deference to, 69; percentage of population, 5rn9; powers of, 97, ro4; property of, 189, 192, 235-39, 588; religious intolerance of, 236, 588; in representative government , 68, 12o; Sieyes's attachment to, 204; as state functionaries, r89, 23941 , 268-72; tithes, 63, 67, rr6, 191, 204, 560, 567, 580 French constitution. See constitution, French French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen (r789), 184-85, 2III2nr , 217, 224n2, 225, 6o5n8, 627n2 French education and knowledge, 68, 241, 589, 6o3, 6r rn2 French finances: Bank of France, 256; Constituent Assembly and state of, 191-92, 208-ro; under First Bourbon Restoration, 68r-82; Necker's man- FrRevol_751-810.indd 31 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX agement of, 58-64; paper money (assignats), 255-56; Red Book, Necker's refusal to disclose, 257; state prior to Revolution, )0-)2, )96I , 63. See also credit and loans; taxation French governments after Revolution. See Bourbon Restoration; Constituent Assembly; Consulate; Convention; Directory; French Republic; Jacobins; Legislative Assembly; Napoleon Bonaparte ; Reign of Terror French history before Revolution, 2644 ; absolute government, xvi, 20, 21, 37- 38, 4I, 47, 94n5, 97-99; Charlemagne and Franks, I9, 20, 28, I07, 487; constitution, existence of (see constitution in France before Revolution ); liberty's role in, 26-28, 32-33, 42; under Louis XIV, 37-4I; under Louis XV, 41-43, 45-46, 47; under Louis XVI (see Louis XVI); in Middle Ages, 28- p; Protestantism, persecution of, 26- 27, 38- 39, 43, 97, 103; Protestantism, toleration of, 3335 , 186, 337; Renaissance and Reformation to reign of Henri IV, 32- 3); Richelieu's influence, 35-37 French military: aristocracy in, 92, r9o; under Bourbon Restoration, 581, )838 ), 586-87, 599-6oo; conquests, Constituent Assembly's renunciation of, 192-93; Convention defended by, 381-82; decrees of Constituent Assembly regarding, 26r- 62; under Directory, 386; emigration of officers, 333; Napoleon, military orders established by, 486-87; Napoleon, return of, 615-17; national guard, 192, 249- )I, 273; during Reign of Terror, 36364 ; Rhine, army of, 393; spirit of, 499-505; standing army, maintenance of, 217-18, 249-50. See also La Fayette ; Napoleonic wars; war between European powers and French Republic French monarchy: abolition of, 2u-q, 2I9; effect of Mirabeau's death on, 265-66; historical development of, 19- 20; inviolability of sovereign, 269, 273-74, 3oom, 338, 627m; La Fayette 's dedication to restoration of, 272, 273; limits placed by Constituent Assembly on, 246-48, 260-61, 26869 ; Louis XVI's manifesto on, 27172 ; Napoleon's assumption of trappings of, 443, 454-55; overthrow of (August w, 1792), 285, 32I- 23; power, abuse of, xvi- xvii; restoration of (see Bourbon Restoration); veto, royal, 213-15, 223, 243- 45, 282n2 French national spirit or character: absolute government affecting, 730-38; at Allied occupation of Paris, 565-68; capacity for liberty, 629- 33; frivolity, 632, 734; love of equality, 244- 45, 486; Napoleon and, 447, )22; prior to Revolution, 67, 70, 98, 140-41; during Revolution, 3II, 357-58 French parliaments. See parlements French provinces: administration before the Revolution, 66- 71; under Bourbon Restoration, 602; Constituent Assembly's reorganization of, 190-91; incorporation of, 96, 99-wo; popular election of local officials, 247m; provincial assemblies, 66- 7I, I92, 247, 6o2, 727 French Republic: Convention, 375- 83; Madame de Stael's support for, 402; means employed to establish, 3rr-15; overthrow of French monarchy, 285, 32I-23; proclamation of, 333· See also Constituent Assembly; Directory; y 8z FrRevol_751-810.indd 32 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX French Republic (continued) Legislative Assembly; Reign of Terror ; war between European powers and French republic French Restoration. See Bourbon Restoration French Revolution: August w, 1792, overthrow of monarchy, 285, 321-23; Bonaparte, revolution of 18th Brumaire giving power to, 425-32; Calonne and, 84; Crown's lack of means ofopposition to, 144-46; Directory (see Directory); England's incitement of, 22o-2r; English civil war compared, 638-39; Federalists, 364; history ofEuropean civilization and, 17-25; July 14, 1789, 1792 celebration of anniversary of, 316-18; July 14, 1789, events of, 162-64; June 20, 1789 (tennis court oath), 143, 36m6; June 20, 1792, march on Tuileries Palace on, 314-15; La Vendee rebellion, 286, 322, 364-65; liberal analysis of, xii-xiv, xx; liberal task as closure of, 6o5n8; Madame de Stael's personal experience of, ix, 323-32; manifesto of Duke of Brunswick, 319-20; means employed to establish Republic, 311-15; Necker and, viii, 74; October 5 and 6, 1789, events of, 222- 30; October 1795, attempts to overthrow Convention in, 381-82; Robespierre, fall of (on 9th Thermidor ), 33on6, 332, 37o-74; September 1792 massacres of prisoners at Paris and Orleans, 324-25, 333· See also Bourbon Restoration; Considerations on the Principal Events ofthe French Revolution; Constituent Assembly; Consulate; Convention; Directory; Jacobins; Legislative Assembly; Napoleon; Reign of Terror French society. See society, Parisian friends of liberty. See liberals Fronde, 37, 545 gabelles (salt tax), 31, 6r, 63 Galileo, 480 Gallatin, Albert, xxii, xxiii Gallois, Monsieur, 531 Gambler, The (Regnard), 150 Garat, Dominique, 210, 340, 627n2 Gaunt, Mrs., 645 generaliufs, 66-67 Geneva annexed to France, 420 Genoa, 20,237,407 Gentz, Friedrich von, 496 George I (king of England), 647 George II (king of England), 647 George III (king of England), 539n2, 647, 649, 66!-64 George IV (king of England), as Prince Regent, 649n3, 656 Germanic tribes, r8, 28 Germany: ancient origins of representative government in, 28; church property appropriated by state, 238; divisions of Estates General compared to legislative chambers of, 119; education in, 589; government and social progress in, 734- 35; Madame de Stael in, xi; Napoleonic wars, 53o31 ; On Germany (Madame de Stael), x, xi, xxii, xxvii, 471, 513n4, 735n2; political system of, 23· See also specific states, e.g., Prussia Gibbon, Edward, viii, 53nr Girardin, Stanislas de, 301 Girondists (republicans): Convention, reemergence during, 378-79; in Legislative Assembly, 301-3, 312n2, 315; Louis XVI, trial and execution by, 337n5, 338; during Reign of Terror, 357, 359-60, 364 FrRevol_751-810.indd 33 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Glorious Revolution (I688), 24, I84, 2II, 607, 634, 635, 640nr7, 722 Godechot, Jacques, xxvii, I41n2, 408n3, 43In4 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, ix, 755n3 Gohier, Monsieur, 423 Goubert, Monsieur, 596 government: absolutist (see absolute government); balance and separation of powers, 2II-I2, 26I, 39o; bicameralism , 2I3, 2I7- I9, 379, ;;m6; constitutions of (see entries at constitution); of England, 665-7I, 68I, 72o-2I; form of, 2u; French governments after Revolution (see Bourbon Restoration ; Constituent Assembly; Consulate ; Convention; Directory; French Republic; Jacobins; Legislative Assembly; Napoleon; Reign of Terror ); mixed government, concept of, I34n2; representative (see representative government) Grammont, Duke of, 593 Grandier, Urbain, 36 Granson, battle of, 4I8 Grattan, Henry, 68o Great Britain. See England Greece, independence of, 492 Greek fire, 22I Greek history and civilization, I8, 737, 753 Gregoire, Abbe, 213n5 Grenville, William Wyndham, Lord, 449 Grey, Lord, 696- 98 Grimm, Friedrich Melchior, Baron de, 53nr, 8m Grotius, Hugo, 34 group (collective) individualism and social atomization, 4rn32, 287n4, 444n4 Guadet, Monsieur, 3Ii guerre des farines, Ia, 54 Guizot, Frano;:ois: on closure of French Revolution as task of liberals, 6o;6n8 ; on decline of French nobility, I38n6; on direct vs. indirect elections, 278n7; on English civil war and French Revolution compared, 638nr;; on European civilization, I7nr, 25nro; on freedom of press, 576m; on French history, 25nro, 33n23; Lady Russell eulogized by, 700n9; liberal theories of, xii, ;8nr; on property qualifications for right to vote, 277n5; Protestantism of, 33n23; on public opinion, ;8nr habeas corpus, 641-42 Haiti, slave revolts in, 358 Halifax, Marquis of, 223m Hamlet, 266 Hampden, John, 350, 35' Hanse towns, 20 Harold (king of England), 635 Harrowby, Lord, ;66m, 696, 698-99 Hastings, battle of, 498 Hastings, Warren, 704 Hatfield (attempted assassin of George III), 661-64 Helvetic Republic, 4I9 Helvetius, Claude Adrien, viii, 53nr Henri II (king of France), 570 Henri III (king of France), I02, 3II Henri IV (king of France), 33-36, ;88; assassination of, 27, 30, 116, 3u; Assembly of Notables, 49, ro2; Bourbon Restoration compared to accession of, 549, 551 , ;6o, 6oo; circumstances contributing to reign of, 732; court dress under, 545; court of, 596; and Edict of Nantes, 27, 30nr7, 33-35, 38, 49, u6, 236, iii, i7o; excommunication of, 743; familiar FrRevol_751-810.indd 34 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Henri IV (king of France) (continued) intercourse of, 38; foreign troops in army of, 287-88; Louis XI opposed to, 106; Louis XIV compared with, 40; Madame de Stael's admiration for, 29, 30; on parlementary registration and validity of royal edicts, 102; revocation of excommunication of, ll5ni Henry III (king of England), 30, 634-35 Henry IV (king of England), 635 Henry VI (king of England), 639 Henry VII (king ofEngland), 24, 635-36 Henry VIII (king of England), 21-22, 3onr6,636-37, 677 Herault de Sechelles, Monsieur, 359 Hercules, 380, 6o7, 718 hereditary succession, 19-20, 537-39 Histoire de !'ancien gouvernement de France (Boulainvilliers), 99n6 history: English history, 21-22, 24, 63448 ; of European civilization, 17-25; French history (see French history before Revolution; French Revolution ); lessons of liberty from, 753; Madame de Stael's view of, xiii-xiv; suppression of titles as denial of, 242-43 Hache, Monsieur, 596 La Hogue, battle of, 289 d'Holbach, Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron, viii, 53nr Holland: as Batavian Republic, 448m; Bonaparte, Louis, as king of, 523; establishment as republic, 20, 357, 753; freedom of press in, 194; French invasion and occupation of, 346, 347, 407,428, )3I; habits ofliberty in, 67; House of Nassau, 753; Louis XVI's support for republic of, r28 Holland, Lord, 706 Holy Alliance, 197n4, 745 Homer, 755 l'H6pital, Chancellor Michel de, 33, 56, 62, 106, I20, 476 Hotspur, 655 Howard, Catherine, 636 Huguenots. See Protestantism; Reformation Humboldt, Alexander von, 754-55 Humboldt, Wilhelm von, 755n3 Hume, David, viii, )3nr, 73, 350-51, 643- 46, 6)3, 698 Hundred Days, r9n4, 298n6, 464, 552, 6r8-2o Hundred Years' War, 635 Hungary, 19, 26n3 Inchbald, Mrs., 699 India, English in, 415, )25, 704-5 indirect vs. direct elections, 278-79 Ines de Castro, 58r inviolability of monarch, 269, 273-74, 3oom, 338, 627n2 Ireland, 6o, 650, 679-80, 720-21 Iron Crown, Order of, 486 Islam, Napoleon's supposed conversion to, 425, 454 Italy: ancient origins of representative government in, 28; art works taken by Napoleon from, 394-95; French invasion of (r6th century), 29-30, 32; historical and political development of, 20, 23-24; independence of, 492, 493; Napoleonic conquests of, 386, 387, 393- 95, 414; Russian and Austrian occupations of, 424; women, education of, 686. See also specific states, e.g., Venice Jacobins: attack on Directory, 385; attempted overthrow of Convention (October 1795), fear of return, 382; Committee of Public Safety, 286m, FrRevol_751-810.indd 35 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX 36o, 36m5, 371, 375; on compact between nation and Crown, 125; compromises of other parties made with, 276; Constituent Assembly contrasted with, 198; dislike of emigrants, 367; on English incitement of French Revolution, 220--21; English sympathizers with, 22om , 347n3; equality, intoxication of, 245; European powers , war with, 307; La Fayette's refusal to join, 263; in Legislative Assembly, 300--301; Madame de Stael's critique of, x; Madame de Stael's personal observation of rise of, ix; on ministerial access to Assembly, 2p; Montagnards' association with, 204, 232m; municipal clubs, 317; Napoleon, attempted assassination of, 451- p; Napoleon's ascendancy and fear of, 428- 29, 431, 432, 436, 445; October 5 and 6 as first days of accession of, 231; organization and ideology of, 262; on reelection of representatives, 279- 8o; on revision of Constitution of 1791, 279; survivors after Reign of Terror, sophistry of, 377-78; trial of Louis XVI, call for execution at, 338. See also Reign of Terror Jacquerie, La, 26 James, Henry, xxii James I (king of England), 341, 638, 649n James II (king of England), 211, 289, 543, 550, 6o8, 615, 640- 46 Jansenists, 39, 43, 45 Jaucourt, Monsieur, 301, 327, p8, 368 Jefferson, Thomas, xxii- xxiii, 562n3, 755 Jeffrey, Francis, 683 Jeffreys (Jefferies), George, 550, 643- 46 Jesuits, 43, 45 John Lackland (king of England), 571, 634,637 John II the Good (king of France), 29, II) John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, 26 Joly de Fleury, Monsieur, 83, 87, 102 Jonson, Ben, 293 Jordan, Camille, 400 Joseph II (emperor of Austria), 82, 128, 306, 3o8n5 Jourdan-Delbrel, Law of, 386n5, 49901 judges, election of, 247- 48 Julius II (pope), 30016 July 14, 1789: anniversary, celebration of (1792), 316- 18; events of, 162-64 July 14, 1790, Federation of, 249- 51 June 20, 1789 (tennis court oath), 143, 36In6 June 20, 1792, march on Tuileries Palace , 314- 15 jurisprudence, civil, in England, 664 jurisprudence, criminal: Constituent Assembly's modifications to, 186-89, 247; in England, 659- 64 jury, trial by, 188, 679 juste milieu (middle-of-the-road liberals ), 62n8 Kergolay, Louis de, 6o2n3 Kirke, Colonel, 643- 44 Knights Templars, 26 knowledge. See education and knowledge Kosciusko, Tadeusz, 23 La Fayette, Madame de, 349 La Fayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-YvesRoch -Gilbert Du Motier, Marquis de: in America, 72- 73, 182- 83; amnesties obtained by, 281-82; in Austrian prison at Olmi.itz, p6, 333n3, 349-51; :;85 FrRevol_751-810.indd 36 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX La Fayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-YvesRoch -Gilbert Du Motier, Marquis de (continued) biographical information, 73n2; character of, 182- 83; Club of 1789, 263; on criminal process, r86; dedication to restoration of monarchy, 272, 273; Federation of 1790, 25o-)I; Fox on, 349-51; on French Declaration of Rights, 184; Legislative Assembly's condemnation of, 315, pr; October 5 and 6, 1789, events of, 226--28; opinions of, 755; Orleans, exile of Duke of, 233; parties of Constituent Assembly , no alignment with, 2or; popular acclamation on July 14th, 164; refuge offered to royal family by, 319-20; refusal to join Jacobins, 263; resignation from army, 333, 334n6; on return of Napoleon, 623n2 La Fontaine, Jean de, 39, 618m La Hogue, battle of, 289 Laine, Joseph, 531 Lally-Tollendal, Trophime-Gerard de: in Constituent Assembly, 179, 2oo, 213, 231; on Girondists, 302; imprisonment and liberation after overthrow of monarchy, 327, p8; July 14, period leading up to, 141n3, 164, 16771 ; during overthrow of monarchy, 322; sentencing and execution of, 66o Lamballe, Marie-Therese de SavoieCarignan , Princess of, 329 Lameth, Charles Malo Franc;:ois, 262, 272 Lancaster, Joseph, 678 Lanjuinais, Jean Denis, Count, 379, 562 Lansdowne, Lord, 657, 696, 698 Laocoon, 234 La Rochejacquelin, Monsieur, 365 Last Views on Politics and Finance (Necker), viii, 278n8, 458-67 Latin America, independence movements in, 710 La Tour-du-Pin, Monsieur, 322 La Trappe, monks of, 368 La Tremouille, Prince Louis de, 404, 486 Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, 343 La Valette, Antoine Chamans, Count of, 612 La Vendee rebellion, 286, 322, 364- 65, 385, 404, 631 Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 361 law, rule of: Madame de Stael's championing of, xiii, xvi-xvii, xix, xxvi, 98n4; Necker's interest in connection between credit and, 59n2; Old Regime's lack of, xi, xv-xvi, 104 Law Jourdan-Delbrel, 386n5, 499nr laws and decrees: aristocracy, Constituent Assembly's suppression of titles of, 242-45; armchair decree, 2993oom ; Catholic Relief Act of 1829 (England), 721m; clergy, decrees of Constituent Assembly regarding, 189, 192, 235-41; Constituent Assembly's reform of, 190-91; exclusion, decree of 2d Brumaire of, 382-83; good laws effected by Constituent Assembly, 186- 93; Legislative Assembly, nature of decrees of, 304- 5, 3u-12; Louis XVI's indiscriminate sanction of all decrees after 5 October, 243-44; Louis XVI's veto ofdecree of proscription against clergy, 304, 313; military, decrees of Constituent Assembly regarding, 261- 62; Poor Laws (England), 679; Reform Act of 1831-32 (England), 668-69, 720-21 League of the Holy Alliance, 197n4, 745 Lebon, Joseph, 378 Lebrun (Le Brun), Monsieur, 442, 465 FrRevol_751-810.indd 37 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX left, origin of political sense of, 2oom, 202 Legendre, 377 Legion of Honor, 486-87 Legislative Assembly: European powers, war with, 306-10, 312; first meeting of, 279n9; La Fayette condemned by, 315; Louis XVI and, 282m, 2993oom , 309-10, 313-15; ministers, accusations against, 312, 313; nature of decrees of, 304-5, 311-I2; parties in, 299-303; Republic, means employed to establish, 3II-I) Leipzig, battle of, 53mi6, 656 Lemoine, General, 405-6 Leopold II (Holy Roman Emperor), 188, 307n2, 308 Lescure, Louis-Marie de Salgues, Marquis de, 365 Lesdiguieres, Fran<;ois de Bonne, Due de, 33 lese majesti, 156 l'Espinasse, Mademoiselle de, 699 Lessart, Monsieur de, 312n2 Letourneur, Monsieur, 384, 39m2 Letters on the Works and Character ofJ-J Rousseau (Madame de Stael), ix lettres de cachet, 49, 88, 107, r88- 9o, 313, 343, 468, 471, )46 l'Hopital, Chancellor Michel de, 33, 56, 62, 106, I20, 476 liberal analysis: economic liberalism, 498n3; of French history before Revolution , 27n8; of French Revolution, xiii;juste milieu (middle-of-the-road liberals), 6m8; of public opinion, )8ni liberals: closure of French Revolution as task of, 605-6; during First Bourbon Restoration, 6o5-u;juste milieu (middle-of-the-road liberals), 62n8; ministry under Louis XVIII, suitability for, 6o5-7; Napoleon, return of, 615, 616-17, 619; Reign of Terror, as emigrants during, 285, 367-70 liberty, 748-55; England's conditions contributing to, 659-76, 682; England's potential loss of, 717-22; French capacity for, 629-33; in French history, 26-28, 32-33, 42; justice as basis for, 659; Madame de Stael's championing of, xiii, xix- xx, 748- 55; as more ancient than despotism , 28; Protestantism and, 32-33. See also press, freedom of; religion and political liberty; religious toleration and freedom of worship; rights Lilburne (English religious dissenter), 343 Lille, negotiation of, 387 limited monarchy. See constitutional monarchy Limon, Marquis of, 319m Lisle, Lady, 645 literature: absolute government and, 73o-31; in England, 642, 683-84, 699; in Germany, 735; under Louis XIV, 39-40, )II, 730; under Louis XV, 4243 ; under Napoleon, 506-10; during Reign of Terror, 362; by women, 699 tits de justice, xvi, 50, 86, 92, 101, 103, 108 loans. See credit and loans Locke, John, 542-43,641 Lombardy/Lombard League, 20, 394, 407, )!9 London, banquet of Lord Mayor of, 6)7-)8 Lorraine, Cardinal, 743 Louis, Baron, 582n7 Louis, Duke of Orleans, assassination of, 26 Louis VI le Gros (king of France), 30, )70, 57! FrRevol_751-810.indd 38 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Louis IX (St. Louis, king of France), 29, 30, 100, 337, 391 Louis XI (king of France), 21, 26, 29, 31-32, 35, 106, 288n5, po, 596, 635, 742 Louis XII (king of France), 29, 30, 34, ro6 Louis XIII (king of France), 34, 35, 100, 102, 106, II), )4), )8I Louis XIV (king of France), 37-41; abolition of Edict of Nantes, po; absolutism of, 37- 4I, 101, 730; antilibertarian nature of, 571; Charles I of England and, 346; Charles II of England and, 715-16; court dress under, 545; divine right, advancement of doctrine of, wr; Elizabeth I compared , 637; England, efforts in influence , 641; eulogies required by, )78; French aristocracy under, 37; French clergy under, 41; Henri IV compared, 40; "L'itat, c'est moi," ))I; literature under, 39-40, )II, 730; Madame de Stael's opinion of, 27, 571; Voltaire and,43 Louis XV (king of France), 40-42; attempted assassination by Damien, 66r; Charles I of England compared, 638; finances under, 51, 63, 257; Greek fire rejected by, 221; Madame de Stael's opinion of, 27, 545, 730, 734; Narbonne-Lara as illegitimate son of, 3o8n7; public opinion at end of reign, 45-47 Louis XVI (king of France): accession, state of France and public opinion on, 45- p; American War oflndependence and Dutch patriots, support for, 72-73, !28; at anniversary of Bastille Day (1792), 318; assent to Constituent Assembly proposals, 216-17; Calonne's ministry, 84- 85; Charles I ofEngland compared, 339, 341-45; constitutional oath, veto ofdecree of proscription against clergy not taking , 304, 313; Constitution of 1791, acceptance of, 282-83; Declaration of the Rights of Man, failure to accede fully to, 217, 224m, 225; divine right, difficulty in relinquishing notion of, 155-56, 223; efforts to remove royal family from France, 223, 225-26, 268-72; European powers' plan to restore, 307n4; execution of, 340; funeral ceremony (1815), 581; hunting expedition on October 5, 1789, 224; indiscriminate sanction of all decrees after October 5, 243- 44; July 14, 1789, events, 163; June zo, 1792, attack, 314- 15; La Fayette's offer of refuge to royal family, 319-20; Legislative Assembly and, 28m2, 2993oonr , 309- 10, 313- 15; manifesto of, 271- 72; ministerial choices, 48- p; Mirabeau, secret correspondence with, r76n5; monetary problems, )0- )2, 63, 257; Necker and (see Necker, Jacques); at opening of last Estates General, rp; opera attendance after acceptance of Constitution, 283; opposition to Revolution, 144-46; overthrow of French monarchy (August 1792), 285, 321-23; personal qualities, 46-47, 48; refusal of title of Majesty, 299-3oonr; removal of royal family to Paris, 228-30; royal session (June 23, I789), 143, 147-54; selfconfidence , lack of, 89, 91; trial and sentencing of, 335- 40; will and testament of, 340. See also French Revolution Louis XVIII (king of France): BarbeMarbois and, 400n4; Calonne and, 107, 108; constitutional principles of, FrRevol_751-810.indd 39 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX I25, I49, 534, 552, 56o, 563-64; Declaration of St. Ouen, I49, 149n2, 297, 5pn6, 564, 569; emigration to Belgium during Napoleon's Hundred Days, 298n6; Legislative Assembly's accusations against, 304; Madame de Stael's admiration for, xii; representatives in France during Revolution, 404n4; return after Second Restoration , 627n2; return to Paris during Allies' occupation, 567-68; at royal session planning meeting, I5m7; Third Estate, early support for equal representation of, I22; and Treaty of Paris, 534· See also Bourbon Restoration ; Charter of I814 Louise de Mecklenbourg-Strelitz, queen of Prussia, 53 I Louisiana Purchase, xxii Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III, first president and last emperor of France), 492n1, 5I5 Louis-Philippe I (king of France), 205n10, 559 Louis Philippe II (Philippe-Egalite), Duke of Orleans, 205-6, 225, 233, 273 Louvet de Couvray, Jean-Baptiste, 379 Lucretia, 750 Luther, Martin, 26n4 Luzerne, Monsieur de Ia, 127, I34 Lycurgus, 2I9n3 Macbeth, 62I MacDonald, Etienne-Jacques-JosephAlexandre , Duke of Taranto, 487 Machiavellianism, xviii, 240, 348, 375, 48I, 484,488, 512, 5I7-18, 578 Mackintosh, Sir James, 683, 698 Magna Charta, 24, IOI, 284, )7I, 634- 35, 637 Maine de Biran, Monsieur, )3I Maistre, Joseph de, xiv, xxi, 5on8 majorats, 693n3 Malesherbes, Guillaume-Chretien de Lomoignon de, 49-50, 82, 106, 335, 339, 36I, 588 Mallet, General, 529- 30 Malouet, Monsieur, I4I, I42, I5I, I79, 200, 231, 263 Malta, 448m Malthus, Thomas, 684 manifesto of Duke of Brunswick, 31920 Manuel, Louis Pierre, 327- 28, 331- 32 marais, le, 200-201 Marat, Jean-Paul, 267n3, 316, 359, 36In5, 387 Marek, Auguste de Ia, 265m Marengo, battle of, 448, 458, 491 Marguerite de Valois, 30n17 Maria Theresa (empress of Austria), 223, 3o8n5, 730 Marie Antoinette (queen of France): on adoption of English constitutional model, 150; at anniversary of Bastille Day (I792), 317-18; appearance on balcony at Versailles, October 6, 1789, 229; Barnave's secret correspondence with, 202n6, 308; Calonne and, 84-85; character and personality, 46-47; death of Louis XVI and, 34o; efforts to remove royal family from France, 223, 225-26, 268-72; execution of, 361; June 20, 1792, attack, 314; La Fayette's offer of refuge to royal family, 319-20; and Madame de Polignac, I66; massacre of guards on October 5-6, 1789, 227; Maurepas and, 76; Necker and, 76, 89, 114, 127, 257-58; at opening of last Estates General, Ip; overthrow of French monarchy (August 10, I792), 322; regency, exclusion from, 268, 269; FrRevol_751-810.indd 40 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Marie Antoinette (queen ofFrance) (continued) removal of royal family to Paris, 228-3o; royal session ofJune 23, I)I, I))-56; support for Archbishop of Toulouse (Sens), 89, u4; Third Estate, views on representation of, I27 Marie de Medicis, 35m6 Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, pon5 Marie-Therese (daughter ofLouis XVI), 58I Marillac, Marshal de, 36 Marlborough, John Churchill, Duke of, 654 marriage in England: divorce trials, 686-88; lack of dowries, 693-94; sexual coquetry and shyness, 69I-92 Marseillois (Marseillais) in Paris, }I}, 317 martial or prevotal courts, r88 Mary, Queen of Scots, 637, 639 Mary I (queen of England), 637 Mary II (queen of England), I56m, 646 Massena, Andre (Duke of Rivoli and Prince of Essling), 487 Matthieu, Pierre, 34 Maupeou, Rene Nicolas de, 45 Maurepas, Jean-Frederic Phelypeaux, Count of, 48-p, 76-79, 83, II} Maury, Abbe, IJ8, I75-76, 2oo, 263 Maximes du droit public Fran,cois (Mey and Maultrot), 106-7 Maximilian I (Holy Roman Emperor), 29nr 5, 3onr6 Mazarin, Cardinal, 37, 102, 237n;, 743 Mecklenbourg-Strelitz, Louise de, queen of Prussia, )}I Medicis, Catherine de, 33, 23on7, }II; Machiavelli and, 5I7-I8 Medicis, Marie de, 35m6 Medusa, 324 Melzi d'Eril, Francesco, 5I9- 20 Memoire justicatifde Louis XVI (Necker), 335- 37 Mercy-Argenteau, Comte de, 308 Merlin de Douai, Monsieur, 39In2, 423 Merlin de Thionville, Monsieur, }OI, }09 Mesme, Monsieur de, II6 Methodists, 239, 685 Metternich, Prince Klemens Wenzel von, 496ni, 53Ini6 Mexican independence movement, 710 Middle Ages: in Europe, I8-2r; in France, 28-p middle-of-the-road liberals (juste milieu), 62n8 military, English, 347, 503, 7I8-2o; impressment of seamen in England, 664-65; standing armies, 2I7-I8, 249-50, 504 military, French. See French military Mill, John Stuart, 277n5, 755n3 Milton, John, 455 Minerva of Phidias, 95 Mirabeau, Honore Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de: biographical information, I30n2; Bouille and, 262; character, 173- 77, 234; Club of 1789, 263; Danton compared, 372; death of, 265-67; on French finances, 209-10; at last convention ofEstates General, I4I, 142, 159--6o; and Luzerne's pamphlet, I34nr; Manuel as publisher of letters, 327; Necker and, I73-76; at opening of last Estates General, r3o-32; opposition to royal veto, 2I3n5; party alignment in Constituent Assembly, 20I, 234; Romilly and, 698n6; on state appropriation of church property , 238n6; on suppression of noble titles, 243; workshop, I75n3 790 FrRevol_751-810.indd 41 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX mixed government, concept of, I34n2 moderate party in Constituent Assembly , 20o-201, 262-63, 272 monarchiens, 14In3, I)On4, 213n5 monarchy: absolutist, relationship to aristocracy, 284; constitutional (see constitutional monarchy); French (see French monarchy); hereditary succession , 19-20, 537-39; incapacity of ruler, 439, 540- 41; inviolability of, 269, 273-74, 300nr, 338, 627n2; legitimate royalty, what constitutes, 5374 !. See also absolute government monastic vows and orders, 8o, 189, 368 Monbreton de Norvins, Jacques Marquet , Baron of (Monsieur de Norvins de Monbreton), 405-6 Moniteur, Napoleon's statement in, )I), )24-2) Monk, General, 550n2 Monsabert, Goislard de, 93 Montagnards (the Mountain), 204, 232, JOI, 359n3 Montespan, Marquise de, 735-36 Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat , Baron de, 42, 62n8, I0)-6, 14In3, 167n5, I79, 212, 475n2, )I7lll, 6)I, 729n7 Montesquiou, Abbe de (Fran~ois-Xavier de Montesquiou-Fezensac), 2oo, p8-29 Montesquiou, Marquis of, 134 Monthion, Monsieur de, I07-IO Montmorency, Abbe de, 369 Montmorency, Adrian, 489 Montmorency, Mathieu de, 129, 322, 32), 369,471,486,489 Montmorency-Laval, Duke of, 233 Montmorin, Madame de, IJI Montmorin, Monsieur de, I27, 131, 162 Moore, Hannah, 699 Moore, Sir John, 703 Moore, Thomas (English poet), 684 More, Thomas (English statesman and saint), 636 Moreau, General, 392, 430, 485, 508 Moreau, Monsieur, 424 Mornay, Philippe Duplessis, 35 Morris, Gouverneur, xxii mortmain, 55 Moulin[s], General, 423 Mounier, Monsieur, I4I-42, I) I, I)8, 179, 200, 2I2, 2IJn4, 224, 23I Mountain, the (Montagnards) , 204, 232, JOI, 359n3 Nantes, Edict of, 27, JOni7, 33-35, 38, 49, II6, 236, ))I, 570, )88 Naples, 82, 448n2 Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I, emperor of France), vii, xi; absolute power, progress to, 441-47; administration and legislation under, 506- ro; ambitions of, 394; America, plan to flee to, 623n3; American involvement of Madame de Stael and, xxiii; appearance of, 4ro, 443- 44; aristocracy under, 487-90; attempted assassination of, 451- p; Bernadette and, 555- 57; Bourbon Restoration's means of preventing return of, 598-607; Champs-de-Mars revived by, 19n4; character of, 407-u, 4I6, 425-26, 454, )Oo-)o2, 523-24; Constituent Assembly's renunciation ofconquests and, 193n12; as consul (see Consulate ); as Corsican, 434n8, 469, 491, 625; coup d'etat of I8 Fructidor (September 4, I797) paving way for, 396; critiqued in Considerations, xvii-xviii; Directory, reception by (December ro, 1797), 411-13; Directory, termina- :J9l FrRevol_751-810.indd 42 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I, emperor of France) (continued) tion of, 424; Elba, exile to, 501, 564; as emperor, 483-90; English, surrender to, 623- 24; English failure to make attempt on life of, 221; exile of Madame de Stael during reign of, x, 459, 466, 468-73, 477-78, 565; fall of, 621- 25; first abdication of, 534- 36, 562; freedom of press under, 442, 445-46, 498, )II-14, 731; as general under Convention and Directory, 38r-82; Hundred Days, 19n4, 298n6, 464, 552, 6r8-2o; influence of Madame de Stael on, vii; Islam, supposed conversion to, 425, 454; Italian conquests, 386, 387, 393-95, 414; liberal concessions on return of, 618-2o; literature under, ;o6-w; Machiavellianism of, 48r, 484, 488, 512, )17; Madame de Stael's fear and dislike of, 408-rr; Moniteur, statement in, )I), 524-25; Necker and, 458-67; as Necker's "necessary man," 458; On Germany and, x, xi; Papacy, concordat with, 425, 453-57, 743; Parisian society under, 592-96; political doctrine of, p6-22; religion, use of, 453- )7; return of, 612- 17; royal trappings, assumption of, 443, 454- 55; ruler of France during European wars (see Napoleonic wars); Sainte-Helena, imprisonment on, )36; second abdication of, 626; Switzerland, invasion of, 401, 415- 21, 425; wives of, 408, po2r ; women and, 411, 430, 470- 71, 49° Napoleon II of France, pr, 626 Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon, first president and last emperor of France), 492nr, )I) Napoleonic Code, 5o6-1o, )I7n2 Napoleonic wars: Allies against Napoleon (see Allies); America, 649; Austria , 448m, ;or, 553-6o; battle of Marengo, 448, 458, 491; campaign against Allies winter of 1814, ))8; Continental Europe, 491-94; Egypt, invasion and conquest of, 414-1 ), 425-27, 448m, 525; England, 448-p, 49)- 98, 553-60, 62!-24, 649-)8, 708- r6; French desire to avenge defeats, 610; Germany and Holland, liberation of, )30-JI; Italy, conquest of, 386, 387, 393-95; number of French soldiers killed in, 434; Paris, entry of Allies into, 553- 6o; Prussia, 530-31, i53-6o, 711; reversals after Russian disaster, 530-36; Russia, 448, 523-30, 535, 553- 6o; Spain, 502, 505, )21, 531, 535; spirit of French military during, 499-505; Treaty of Amiens, 448, 449- ;o; Waterloo, 196n4, )Jinl), 621, 623, 67), 71) Narbonne-Lara, Louis de, 308- 9, 322, 32)- 27 Narbonne-Pelet, Hermesinde de, Duchess of Chevreuse, 470n3 Nassau, (Dutch) House of, 753 National Assembly. See Constituent Assembly national guard, 192, 249-51, 273 national spirit or character: English, 671-76, 693-96; French (see French national spirit or character); Irish, 68o "necessary man," Necker's description of Napoleon as, 458 Necker, Jacques: as administrative planner , 6)-71, 727; American War of Independence, opposition to involvement in, 73; Auguste de Stael's intention of publishing complete works of, 4; on balance of powers, 212m; bioJ92 FrRevol_751-810.indd 43 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX graphical information, viii; charitable involvements, 53, So; Considerations intended as study of ideas of, xiii, 5; on Constituent Assembly, 218-19n3; on Constitution of 1791, 295-98; on Consulate, 458-67; death of, 474-78; Directory, predictions regarding, 389- 92, 397; on direct vs. indirect elections, 278-79; dismissal from second ministry, 159, r6o-62; English model for French constitution, attempts to establish, 216-19, 295, 725; Estates General and, 68-69, 112, II7, 122-27, 132-33, 135; on European public support for popular representation , 128; on executive power, viii, 212m, 246, 293-94, 298, 389- 91; exiles of, 88-89, 159, 16o-62, 258- 59; and Federation of 1790, 250-51; financial management after Revolution , 207-9; financial management before Revolution, 58-64; initial appointment as minister of finance, )I-)2, 54- 55; as intermediary between Crown and Constituent Assembly, 107-208, 216-17, 222-23; libels against, 77-79, 87-88; memoir on Louis XVI, 335-37; Mirabeau and, 173-76, 265- 66; moderate party, alignment with, 2oo; Napoleon and, 408, 458-67; October 5 and 6, 1789, events, 224, 228; Oeuvres completes, 278n8; paper money (assignats), opposition to, 255-56; political principles , 479- 82; property in France, sequestration of, 258, 335n, 421, 458, 459; on proscribed emigrant list, 389, 417, 420; public character, 53-57; recall to second ministry, 94n6-7, u2-14; recall to third ministry, 1)5- )7; Red Book, refusal to disclose, 257; Reign of Terror, prediction of, 295; resignation from final ministry, 25)59 ; resignation from second ministry, 146, 147, 151, 153, 155-57; in retirement in Switzerland, 291- 98, 417-18; return following July 14 Revolution, 165-72; royal session (June 23, 1789) and, 146-53; on royal veto, 214-1 ); on suppression of noble titles, 243- 45; writings, viii, 53-54, 477· See also specific titles ofworks Necker, Madame (Suzanne Churchod), vii-viii, )3, 65, 78, 8o, 161, 166, 224, 228, 2)9, 417 Nelson, Horatio, 425, 673-74 Nero (Roman emperor), 31, 742 Netherlands. See Holland Neufchateau, Nicholas-Louis Frans;ois de, 391n2 Neville, Richard, Earl of Warwick, 635 Niobe, 131 nobility. See aristocracy; Chamber of Peers; French aristocracy Norfolk, Duke of, 672 Northumberland, Hugh Smithson Percy, Duke of, 65) Norvins de Monbreton, Monsieur de (Jacques Marquet, Baron of Monbreton de Norvins), 405-6 Norway, 22 Notables, Assembly of. See Assembly of Notables Numa Pompilius, 153-54n8, 219n3 Observations on the Work ofMadame de Staid . .. (Bonald), xxi, 96m October 5and 6, 1789, events, 222- 30 October 4 and 5, 1795, attempts to overthrow Convention, 381-82 Old Man of the Mountain, 355 Omacini, Lucia, 28n9 On the Administration ofthe Finances of France (Necker), 62, 291-92 793 FrRevol_751-810.indd 44 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX On the Corn Trade and Corn Laws (Necker), 53 On the Current Circumstances Which Can End the Revolution (Madame de Stael), x, 28n9 On the Executive Power in Large States (Necker), viii, 2I2m, 246, 295, 298 On the French Revolution (Necker), viii, 86n3, IO)ni4, I33n7, I)0n3, I)2n7, 2I8-I9n3, 389-92 On Germany (Madame de Stael), x, xi, 47I, )I3n4, 73)ll2 On the Importance ofReligious Opinions (Necker), 113, 475m On the Influence ofPassions on the Happiness ofIndividuals and Nations (Madame de Stael), ix On Literature Considered in Its Relation to Social Institutions (Madame de Stael), ix Opie, Mrs., 699 Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 448m Order of the Iron Crown, 486 Orlando Furioso (Ariosto), 42I Orleans, Louis, Duke of, assassination of, 26 Orleans, Louis Philippe II (PhilippeEgalite ), Duke of, 205-6, 225, 233, 273 Orleans, massacre of prisoners at, 32425 , 333 Orleans, Philippe II, Duke of (Regent for Louis XV), 642m2, 683, 730 Orleans party, 205-6 d'Ormesson, Monsieur, 83, 87 d'Ossat, Arnaud, 35 Ossian, 408 overthrow of French monarchy (August I792), 28) Paine, Thomas, 339, 542 Palatinate, 38 Palm (bookseller), 513 Papacy: English fear of, 72I; French clergy's allegiance to, 32, 11)-I6, 244; French withdrawal from Papal States, 448m; Napoleon's concordat with, 425, 453- 57, 743; political actions of, 743· See also specific popes paper money (assignats), 255-56, 384-85 Paris: Allies' entry into, 553-6o; Allies' occupation of, 565-68; Constituent Assembly removed to, 224, 23I-34; Marseillois (Marseillais) in, 3I3, 3I7; massacre of prisoners at, 324-25, 333; Napoleonic improvements to, 508-9; parlement of, )!, 67, 83, 84, 86, I02-3, 106, 120, I23, I2)n), 342; political influence of, 68, I92, 344, 602; royal family removed to, 228-30; Tuileries (see Tuileries Palace, Paris) Paris, Treaties of, 534mo, 6q-r), 708n9, 7II Parisian society. See society, Parisian Paris opera: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette's attendance after acceptance of Constitution of I79I, 283; Madame de Stael's attendance during Allied occupation, 566- 67; performance of Psyche (ballet), 283, 567 parlements, 67n4, 235m, 342; England's Parliament compared, 104-6; establishment of, 99-100; Maurepas on recall of, 48-49; of Paris, )I, 67, 83, 84, 86, 102-3, 106, 120, I23, I2)n), 342; powers of, 97, 99-103; provincial assemblies, 66-7I; taxation and, 41, )0-)I, 86, 92-94, 97 Parliament, English, I04-6, 342, 66)-7I, 68I, 72o-2I partial enfranchisement, period of, 2o-2I Partie de Chasse de Henri IV(play), 8In parties, political. See political parties Pascal, Blaise, 39 Pasquier, Monsieur, 102 794 FrRevol_751-810.indd 45 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX patriotism of English, 673-74 Patrocles, 6o1 Paul I (tsar), 227n5 pays d'etats, 66-67, 104 Pays de Vaud and invasion of Switzerland , 415-16 Peace of Amiens. See Amiens, Treaty of Pedro of Portugal, Don, 581 peers. See aristocracy; Chamber of Peers; French aristocracy Peltier, Monsieur, 195n2 Penn, William, 356 Percy, Hugh Smithson, Duke of Northumberland , 655 Percy Hotspur, 655 Perron, Cardinal du, 115 personal tax (taille), 69, 153, 189n6 Peruvian independence movement, 710 Peter I the Great (emperor of Russia), 23 Peter III (tsar), 227n5 Pethion (Petion de Villeneuve), Monsieur , 272, 317 Phalaris, bull of, 510 Phelypeaux, Jean-Frederic, Count of Maurepas, 48-p, 76-79, 83, II3 Phidias, 95 Philip II (king of Spain), 21-22, 33, 637ni0 Philip III the Bold (king of France), 579 Philip IV the Fair (le Bel) (king of France), 26, 29m1, 97, 10o-101, 107, 120n2, 540, )70 Philip V the Tall (king of France), 120, 18) Philippe II, Duke of Orleans (Regent for Louis XV), 642022, 683, 730 Philippe-Egalite (Louis Philippe II), Duke of Orleans, 205-6, 225, 233, 273 Philoctetes, 718 philosophical fanaticism, 54 Phocion, 753 Pichegru, General, 397, 399, 485 Piedmont, French invasion of, 407, 428 Pilnitz, convention (declaration) of, 307, 346 Pitt, William, the Elder, First Earl of Chatham, 42, 259, 732 Pitt, William, the Younger: burial in Westminster Abbey, 673; Castlereagh appointed minister by, 709mo; character and talents, 347-48, 540; debts left by, 681; French Revolution, English financing of, 220; governmental balance provided by Fox and, 3)2-)3; great men in French history compared, 732; Grenville and, 449n3; majority requirements for British ministers and, 668; Napoleonic wars, 347-48, 44802, 483; Necker compared , 482; public money, use of, 66)-66; resignation and Treaty of Amiens, 448n2 Pius VI (pope), 189n5 Pius VII (pope), 512 plaine, la, 200- 201 Playfair, John, 683 Pleiswitz, Treaty of, 650 Poland, 19, 23, 407, 492- 93, po, 553, 712, 718 police, 196- 97, 510, 582, 603-4, 653 Polignac, Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, Duchess of, r66 politeness of English, 696 political fanaticism, xvii, 354-56 political influence of Paris over rest of France, 68, 192, 344 political parties: aristocrats and clergy, 199-200; in Constituent Assembly, 199- 206, 26o-64; constitutionalists, 30o-3or, 321-22; in England, 666-68; Federalists, 364; Girondists (republicans ) (see Girondists); Jacobins (see Jacobins); left and right, origins of political sense of, 199, 20002, 202; FrRevol_751-810.indd 46 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX political parties (continued) in Legislative Assembly, 299-303; Mirabeau, party alignment of, 201, 234; moderate party, 200-201, 262- 63, 272; monarchiens, 14ID3, t)On4, 213n5; Montagnards, 204, 232, 301, 359n3; Necker, party alignment of, 2oo; Orleans party, 205- 6; popular party, 201-4, 216-19, 262; royalist attack on Directory, 385; royalist attempt to dissolve Convention, 381-82 political principles: of French emigrants and Bourbon ultraconservatives, 54248 , 576nr; of Louis XVIII, 125, 149, 534, 552, )6o, 563- 64; of Napoleon, )16-22; of Necker, 479-82 Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture (Bossuet), 237, 631 Politics, Literature, and National Character (Madame de Stael), )IIDI Pompey, 429 Poor Laws (England), 679 popular party in Constituent Assembly, 201-4, 2!6- 19, 262 Porus (Indian prince), 685 press, freedom of: under Bourbon Restoration , 194n1, 576-77, 6o4, 6II; Brienne and, 94n8; under Constituent Assembly, 194-98, 253; coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor (September 4, 1797) leading to suppression of, 401; in Denmark, 23; under Directory, 385; in England, 194, 195, 683, 68)-86, 695; Louis XVI's grant of, 125; under Napoleon, 442, 445- 46, 498, )II- 14, 731; Necker's literary success affected by lack of, 477 prevotal or martial courts, r88 Price, R., 22onr primogeniture in France, 19-20 Prince, The (Machiavelli), )17-18. See also Machiavellianism property, sequestration of: of clergy and church, 189, 192, 235- 39, 588; of emigrants , 304, 6oo; of Necker, 258, 335n, 421, 4)8, 4)9 property qualifications on right to vote, 277- 78 Protestantism: in Denmark, 22-23; Edict of Nantes, 27, 30nr7, 33-35,38, 49, II6, 236, ))I, )70, )88; in England, 343; French persecution of, 26-27, 38-39, 43, 97, 103, 236, )80, )88, 713- 14; French toleration of, 3335 , r86, 337; of Guizot, 33m3; of Henri IV, 30m7; in Ireland, 68o; liberty and, 32- 33; of Madame de Stael, 2m5, 32-33n23; mutual form of education , 6o3n5; St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, 27, 103, 175, 236, 361, 750. See also Reformation provinces, French. See French provinces Prussia: entry into Paris with Allies, 553-6o; League of the Holy Alliance, 197n4, 745n3; Napoleonic wars, 53031 , 553- 60, 711; On Germany's praise of, xi; war against revolutionary France, 306-ro, 325, 365, 377 Prynne (English religious dissenter), 342 Psy che (ballet), 283, 567 public employment and offices under Bourbon Restoration, 581-82 public opinion/publicity: during Bourbon Restoration, 578n3, 582; constitutional monarchy, French people's desire for, 316; in England, 6)6, 666, 667, 674-75, 68r- 82, 684; in Europe at time of Estates General convention of 1789, 128; Louis XVI's accession, 45-52; Madame de Stael's views on importance of, xiv-xv, xx, )8nr; on Necker's resignation, 81-82; Necker's views on, 78 Pym, John, 350 FrRevol_751-810.indd 47 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Quiberon, killing ofemigrants at, 38788 , 584 Racine, Jean, 39, 567 Ramond de Carbonnieres, Monsieur, 301 Raynouard, Monsieur, 531 Rebellion of 1745 (England), 598, 647, 737 Recamier, Madame, 471-72 Red Book, Necker's refusal to disclose, 2)7 reelection of representatives, 279-80 Reflections on the Revolution in France (Burke), xiv, xv, 22om, 496n1. See also Burke, Edmund Reform Act of 1831-32 (England), 66869 ,720-21 Reformation: beginnings of, 26n4; church property, state appropriation of, 238; in England, 637, 685; in European history, 21, 22, 23; Fox on, 347; in French history, 32- 33; French persecution of Protestants during, 26- 27. See also Protestantism refugees. See emigrants and emigration; exile Regnard, Monsieur, 150 Regnault de Saint-Jean d'Angely, 272 Regulus, 753 Reid, Thomas, 683n5 Reign of Terror, 328, 357- 62; Committee of Public Safety, 286m, 360, 36rn5, 371, 375; Consideration's critique of, xii, xvii; emigrants during, 285, 367-70; Federalists, 364; French military during, 363-64; literature published during, 362; Madame de Stael's observation of, ix; Necker's prediction of, 295; number of victims of, 361--62n8; Robespierre's fall, 33on6, 332, 370-74; tyranny as form of government during, 375· See also Jacobins; Robespierre religion: English clergy, 236-37, 669; in India, 704-5; monastic vows and orders, 8o, 189, 368; Napoleon's concordat with the Papacy, 425, 453-57; necessity of, 479; Robespierre's festival in honor of Supreme Being, 373· See also French clergy; Papacy; Protestantism ; Reformation religion and political liberty, xix, 73947 , 752-53; in America, 737; Constituent Assembly's establishment of freedom of worship, r86, 189; in England, 358, 550, 636-37, 683-86, 737; Henri IV and Edict of Nantes, 33-35; in Ireland, 679-80, 720-21; loyalty to Papacy as duty, 115-16; Napoleon's use of religion, 453-57; Necker on, 113; Protestantism of Madame de Stael, 2rn5, 32-33m3 religious fanaticism, 354-56, 580 religious toleration and freedom of worship : in America, 356, 453; Charter of 1814 and First Bourbon Restoration, 58o-8r; Constituent Assembly's establishment of, r86, 189; French clergy, 236, 588; under Napoleon, 453; Protestantism, French persecution of, 26-27, 38- 39, 43, 97, 103, 236, 580, 588, 713-14; Protestantism, French toleration of, 33- 35, 186, 337 Remusat, Charles de, 567-68n3 Renaissance, 21, 32-35 Report to His Majesty Louis XVIII, A (Monthion), 107-Io representative bodies: Assembly of Notables, 34, 39, 86-89, 102, 12o-22, IJm6; Chamber of Deputies, 194m, ))In6, 6o3, 623m, 728; Chamber of Representatives, 602, 626-27; Council of Ancients, 379, 397, 431-32, 436; Council of Five Hundred, 379,427, J9J FrRevol_751-810.indd 48 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX representative bodies (continued) 431-33, 436; Council of State, 439, 462, 463, 485, 507, )16, 524; English Parliament, 104--6, 66)-71, 68r, 720-21 ; provincial assemblies in France, 66--71, 192, 247, 602, 727. See also Chamber of Peers; Constituent Assembly; Estates General; Legislative Assembly; parlements; Senate; Tribunate representative government: ancient origins of, 28; authority of, 178m; Bourbon Restoration, importance to, 549- )2, 56o, 602-3; Chambre introuvable, 481m, 728n6; in England, 665-71, 68r, 720--21; historical development of, 24- 25; necessity of, 748-55; Old Regime's lack of, xv-xvi; principles undergirding English system of, xixxx ; reelection of representatives, 279-80 Republic, French. See French Republic republicans. See Girondists republics in large countries, problems of, 380 Restoration, English, 549-51, 564, 6or, 6o8-9, 640--42. See also Charles II Restoration, French. See Bourbon Restoration Reubell, Monsieur, 384, 391m, 398, 423n3,429 Revelliere-Lepeaux, Monsieur Le, 384, 39rn2,423n3 Reverdil, Monsieur, 368-69 revolutionary societies in England, 22om, 347 Revolutionary War in America. See America Reybaz, Monsieur, 175n3 Rhine, French army of, 393 Richard II (king of England), 635, 639 Richelieu, Cardinal, 35- 37, 145; Archbishop of Toulouse's admiration for, 91; constitutional laws of France, effect on, 107; French aristocracy fettered by, 35-37, 102, 545, 635; French Revolution, ability to prevent, 344; Henry VII of England compared, 635; l'Hopital compared, w6; Madame de Stael's opinion of, 27, w6; Necker compared, 55-56 Richelieu, Duke of (formerly Count of Chinon), 226-27 right, origin of political sense of, 199, 2oon2 rights: arms, right to bear, 504-5; Bill of Rights (American), 184; Bill of Rights (English), r)6m, 184, 627m; Bill of Rights (French), 627; Declaration of Rights (English), I)6m, 184; Declaration of Rights (Virginia), r84n3; Declaration of Rights of Chamber of Representatives (French, 1815), 62627 ; Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen (French, 1789), 18485 , 211-12m, 217, 224n2, 225, 6o)n8, 627n2; divine right of kings (see absolute government); feudal rights in France, suppression of, 216-17; property qualifications on right to vote, 277-78. See also liberty; press, freedom of; religion and political liberty; religious toleration and freedom of worship Rivarol, Monsieur, 195m Rivoli, Duke of (Andre Massena), 487 Robespierre, Maximilien, ix; Brissot's opposition to, 3om5; character and appearance, 372; on Committee of Public Safety, 36m5; in Constituent Assembly, 204, 277, 279n9; death penalty, proposed elimination of, r88n2; European powers, war with, FrRevol_751-810.indd 49 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX 307n3; fall (on 9th Thermidor), 33on6, 332, 370-74; Marat compared, 359; religion and political liberty, 742 Robins (English religious dissenter), 342 Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Duke of, xxiiin42, 233 Rochester, John Wilot, Count of, 642 Rogers, Samuel, 684 Rohan, Henri, Due de, 33 Roman history and civilization, 18, 630, 737, 753 Roman Republic under Napolt'!on, 405n5, 422 Romilly, Sir Samuel, 698 rotten boroughs (England), 668n8 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, ix, 42, 135n5, 379, 512 Roveray, Monsieur du, 175n3 Rovigo, Duke of (General Savary), xn8, xxiin38, 487 royalists: attack on Directory, 385; attempt to dissolve Convention, 38182 royal power. See constitutional monarchy ; French monarchy; monarchy Royer-Collard, Monsieur, 6m8, 188n3, 444n4 rule of law: Madame de Stael's championing of, xiii, xvii, xix, xxvi, 98n4; Necker's interest in connection between credit and, 59m; Old Regime's lack of, xi, xiv-xv, 104 Russell, Lady, 699-701 Russell, Lord William, 640, 699-700, 753 Russia: absolute government in, 23; Allies' entry into Paris, 553-6o; assassination in, 227; League of the Holy Alliance, 197n4, 745n3; Madame de Stael in, xi, p6-28; Napoleonic wars, 448, 523- 30, 535, 553- 6o; victories in Italy, 424; war against revolutionary France, 448n2 Rye House Plot, 799n9 Sabatier, Abbe de, 92-93 Sabran, Elzear de, 489 Sainte-Helena, imprisonment of Napoleon on, 536 Saint-Germain, Count de, 190n7 Saint-Just, Louis Antoine Leon de, 338, 36In5 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, 27, 103, 175, 236, 361, 750 St. Jean-d'Acre, battle of, 426 St. John ofJerusalem, Order of, 448m St. Ouen, Declaration of, 149, 149n2, 297, 551n6, 564, 569 St. Priest, Monsieur, 127, 162 salt tax (gahelles), 31, 61, 63 Sante Foix, Monsieur de, 77 Santerre the butcher, 322, 331 Sartines, Monsieur de, 76 Savary, General (later Duke of Rovigo), xn8, xxiin38, 487 Schlegel, August Wilhelm von, ix, xi, 3ni, 4, 496 sciences. See education and knowledge Scotland, 679, 68o,683 Scott, Walter, 673, 684, 748 Segur, Marshal de, 92, 190n7 Senac de Meilhan, Monsieur, 84 Senate: Charter of 1814 and, 57o-72; under Consular Constitution, 438-39, 460, 462, 464, 532, 532nr6; at first Bourbon Restoration, 561- 63, 570- 72 Senneci (Senecey), Baron de, 116 Sens (previously Toulouse), Lomenie de Brienne, Archbishop of, 89--95, 11214 , 121, 158, 237n5 separation of powers, 2rr-n, 39o-9r September 4, 1797. See coup d'etat of r8 Fructidor 799 FrRevol_751-810.indd 50 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Sevigne, Madame de, 699 Sheridan, Mr., 45o-51 Sidney, Algernon, 259, 64o, 753 Sieyes, Abbe: in Constituent Assembly, 203-4, 2r2n3, 263; as Director, 423n3; Napoleon and, 4ro, 430, 436m, 438, 440; in period leading up to July 14, 96nr, q6n5, 141, 142; Society of 1789, founding of, 302n6 Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard de, ix, xxiin38 slavery, xxiii, 67, 358, 539, 656nr4, 7047 ,737 Smith, Sir Sidney, 426, 683n6, 703 social atomization and collective (group) individualism, 41n32, 287n4, 444n4 society, democracy as new type of, 6o6n9 society, Parisian: under Bourbon Restoration , 593-97; during Constituent Assembly, 252-54, 689; court etiquette in modern world, 596; under Directory, 377, 385; English society compared, 252- 53, 689- 701; influence on political affairs, 592-97; under Napoleon, 592-96; women in, 75, 129, 252-)3, 377, 406 society and social order, English, 2)253 , 592, 595, 689-701 Society of 1789, 3om6 Soeurs de Ia Charite, So Solon, 219n3 Somers, Lord, 635 Soult, Marshal, 583-85 South Africa, 448n2 Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of, 700 Spain: absolute government in, 22; ancient origins of representative government in, 28; aristocratic attendance at court in, 68; four estates in, IIS-19; lack of liberty in, 7ro; NapoIeonie wars, 502, 505, )2I, 531, 535; war against revolutionary France, 306-ro, 365, 386 Spirit ofthe Laws (Montesquieu), 517, 729n7 spirit or character, national: English, 671-76, 693-96; French (see French national spirit or character); Irish, 68o Stael, Auguste de (son), xi, xxvii, 3nr, 4, 466m5, 612m, 6)6nq Stael, Monsieur de (husband), 325, 36768 , 377 Stael-Holstein, Anne-Louise Germaine, Baronne de (Madame de Stael): America and, xxii- xxiv; arrest and release of, 329- 32; assets at death, 258n5; biographical information, viiix ; and coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor (September 4, 1797), 329- 32; current relevance, xxv-xxvi; in England, 649-51, 656-58, 696- 701; emigration to Switzerland during Hundred Days, 612m; exile during Napoleon's reign, x-xi, 459, 466, 468-73, 477- 78, 565; influence of, vii; Napoleon, fear and dislike of, 408-u; Narbonne-Lara and, 308-9n7; personal experience of events of French Revolution, ix, 32332 ; portrait, ii; Protestantism of, 2rn5, 32- 33n23; Reign of Terror and emigration to Switzerland, 327-32; Republic, support for, 402; in Russia, xi, p6- 28; Tallyrand and, 403n2; writings of, ix-xii, xxvn1, 398n3. See also specific titles ofworks Stafford, Marchioness of (Lady Sutherland ), 327n Stafford, Marquis of, 670 standing armies, 217-18, 249-50, 504 Star Chamber (England), 342- 44, 66o Stendhal (Marie-Henri Beyle), xxi 8oo FrRevol_751-810.indd 51 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Stewart, Dugald, 683 Stewart, Robert, Viscount Castlereagh, 709-10, 714-15, 719 Strafford, Thomas, Earl of, 344 Suard, Monsieur, 516 Subsidiary Alliance System, 705n4 substitutions, 693 Suchet, Napoleon, 418 Sully, Maximilien de Bethune, Baron of Rosny and Duke of, 34, 35, 76, 8m, 476, 6oo Supaty, Monsieur, 66o Sussex, Duke of, 656 Sutherland, Lady (Marchioness of Stafford ), p7n Sweden: absolute government in, 22; ancient origins of representative government in, 28; four estates in, u819 ; French annexation of portions of, p6; Madame de Stael in, xi; recognition of French Republic by, 377, 386; Staels as ambassadors to France from, 325-26, 331, 377 Sweden, Prince Royal of (General Bernadotte ), 393, 404- 5, 424, 428, 487, m-57, 566m Swift, Jonathan, 68o, 723 Switzerland: emigrants in, 367- 70; establishment as republic, 20, 357; French invasion of, 401, 415- 21, 425; Geneva annexed by France, 420; habits of liberty in, 67; Helvetic Republic, 419; Madame de Stael's emigration to, 327-32, 612m; Necker's retirement to, 291-98, 41718 ; Oath on Riitli, 172; Pays de Vaud, situation of, 415- 16 Tableau de !'Europejusqu 'au commencement de 1.7.96 (Calonne), 107nr6 Taboureau[x] des Reaux, Louis Gabriel, 65nr Tacitus, )16 Tactics ofDeliberative Assemblies, The (Dumont), 275n taille (personal tax), 69, 153, 189n6 Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Maurice de, Prince de Benevente: in America, 403; biographical information, 403m; as Bishop of Autun, 250, 256; in Bourbon Restoration, 561-63; character , 558- 59; on clerical and church property, 238n6; at Congress of Vienna, 582, 598; Federation of July 14, 1790, 250; on lotteries, 256; Madame de Stael and, ix, 403m; as minister of foreign affairs, 403; Napoleon and Madame de Stael, first meeting between, 4o8n3; Napoleon presented to Directory by, 412 Tallien, Jean-Lambert, 332, 373 Talon, Jacques, 102 Taranto, Etienne-Jacques-JosephAlexandre MacDonald, Duke of, 487 taxation: Brienne's proposals, 92; Calonne's proposals, 86; deleterious effects of, 97-98; droits reunis, 582; equalization of, 49, 55, 63, 86, 135, 189; Estates General's powers regarding , 86, 103; in India, 704; under Louis XVI, 50-51; Necker's views on, 55, 61, 63, 69-70; parlements and, 41, 50-5r, 86, 92-94, 97; personal tax (taille), 69, 153, r89n6; Poor Laws (England), 679; property qualifications for right to vote, 277-78; salt tax (gabelles), 31, 61, 63; Turgot's proposals, 49- 50 Tell, William, 753 Templars, 26 Tencin, Madame de, 699 tennis court oath (June 20, 1789), 143, 36rn6 8oz FrRevol_751-810.indd 52 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Ten Years ofExile (Madame de Stael), xi, xviii, xxiin38, xxvnr, xxvii, 4, 459n3,466nr),469n2,471n4,477n4, p6n6, 554n3 Terror, the. See Reign of Terror theater: during Allied occupation, 56667 ; The Gamhler (Regnard), I)O; Louis XII mocked in, p; Necker's political fortunes and, 8rn, r61; Paris opera (see opera, Paris) Third Estate: agitation for Estates General , 95; aristocratic and clerical resistance to demands of, 134-39; attempts to suppress in Estates General convention of 16I4, I16-I7; conduct during last convention ofEstates General, I40-43; demands for equal representation, 68, 89n7, II8, 12I-2), 297n5; introduction into Estates General , 97; oppression of, 97-99; parlements and, 4I Thirty Years' War, 35n27 Thou, Jacques Auguste de, 36 Thouret, Monsieur, 238n6, 272, 282 Tiberius (Roman emperor), 31 Ticknor, George, xxii, xxiiin42 tithes, 63, 67, II6, 191, 204, )6o, 567, 580 titles of nobility, suppression of, 242-45 Tocqueville, Alexis de: on America, xix, xxiii; on Charter of r8q, 6o2n3; collective (group) individualism and social atomization, 4rn32, 287n4, 444n4; on England's singularity, 24n9; English civil war and French Revolution compared, 638m 5; on etiquette in modern world, 596m; on French national character and spirit, I4onr; on French passion for equality, 244n4; Guizot's influence on, q8n6; literary style in politics, criticism of, 145n2; Malesherbes and, 49n6, 335n3; modern interest in, xxv; on Old Regime, xiv, xvn17, 68n5, 11rnr8, II7n3, 358m, 42rnp; on property qualifications for right to vote, 277n5; religion , analysis of, xix; on trial by jury, r88n3 Tolentino, peace of, 394 tontines, 6o Tories (in England), 349, 589, 667 torture, abolition of, I86, 336 Toulongeon, Emmanuel de, Viscount of, 233, 349n Toulouse (later Sens), Lomenie de Brienne, Archbishop of, 89-95, II214 , 121, 1)8, 237n) Tour-du-Pin, Monsieur La, 322 towns, development of, 20-21 Tracy, Destutt de, 56rnr, 562 Trafalgar, battle of, 674 Travels in Greece (Choiseul-Gouffier), 228 Treaties of Paris, 534mo, 614-15, 708n9, 7II Treaty of Amiens, 448, 449-50 Treaty of Basel, 377 Treaty of Campo Formio, 392, 407 Treaty of Pleiswitz, 6;o Treaty of Westphalia, 23, 724 Treihard, Monsieur, 423n3 Tremouille, Prince Louis de La, 404, 486 Tribunate: Charter of 1814 and, 570-72; under Consular Constitution, 439, 460-62,48) trimming, 223m Trinidad and Tobago, 448m Trons:on-Ducoudray (Tronson Du Coudray), Monsieur, 400 Troyes, Anne-Antoine, Count ofBoulogne and Bishop of, 740-47 Tuileries Palace, Paris: August w, 1792 storming of, 285, 321- 23; June 20, 1792, march on, 3I4-15; Napoleon in, 443; royal family incarcerated in, 229-30, 271 802 FrRevol_751-810.indd 53 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques, 49-50, 54, 82, 83, 86, 339 Turkey, 382, )25, p6, 703 Tuscan Republics, 20 Tuscany, Duchy of, 188, 308, 386 tyranny. See absolute government Ugolino, tower of, p6 unicameralism, French establishment of, 213, 217-19 United States. See America Valaze, Monsieur, 36o Valmy, battle of, 307-8n4, 333n4, 346m Varennes, escape and recapture of royal family at, 268- 72 Vaud and invasion of Switzerland, 41516 Vaudreuil, Count of, 593 Velly, Abbe de, 579 Vendean rebellion, 286, 322, 364-65, 38), 404, 631 Vendee, La, 385 Vengeur, Le (ship), 363 Venice, 20, 29m), 386, 393m, 407 Vergniaud, Pierre-Victurnien, 314, 315, 337 veto, royal, 2IJ- I), 223, 243-45, 282m Vienna, Congress of, ;64, ;82, 598, 61;, 709, 744, 74)n3 Virginia Declaration of Rights, 184n3 Virieu, Bailli of (envoy of Parma), 32930 Volney, Constantin Fran<;:ois Chasseboeuf , ;62 Voltaire, viii, 42-43, 53nr, 128, ;67 vote, property qualifications on right to, 277-78 Walpole, Horace, viii, 53nr war between European powers and French Republic, 306-10; Austria, 306-10, 325, 365, 386; during Convention , 376-77; coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor (September 4, 1797) and, 401; during Directory, 386-88, 401, 407, 412n6, 414-21; early defeats of French in, 312; England, 306-10, 346-53, 365, 386-88, 401, 412n6, 414; foreign troops driven from France (1792), 324, 333-34; Italy, Napoleonic conquests of, 386, 387, 393- 95, 414; manifesto of Duke of Brunswick, 319-20; Prussia, 306-10, 325, 365, 377; Rhine, French army of, 393; Spain, 306-10, 365, 386; Switzerland, French invasion of, 401, 415- 21; Tuscany , Duchy of, 308, 386 Wars of the Roses, 635 Warwick, Richard Neville, Earl of, 635 Washington, George, xxiii, 182, 259 Waterloo, 196n4, )31ni), 621, 623, 67;, 71) Waverley (Scott), 748 Wellesley, Arthur, Duke of Wellington. See Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellesley, Lord (governor of India), 704 Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, )31, 621, 649, 674, 67), 703, 709, 710, 714 Westermann, Monsieur, 322 Westphalia, Treaty of, 23, 724 What Is the Third Estate (Sieyes), 96nr Whigs (in England), 349, 589, 667, 706 White Terror, ;So, 713 Wilberforce, William, 6;6, 705, 706, 755 William I the Conqueror (king of England), 498, 635 William III of Orange (king of England), 24, 156m, 184, 543, ))O, ;64, 6o8-9, 61;, 64onr7, 646, 6;;, 700 Williams (English religious dissenter), 343 FrRevol_751-810.indd 54 3/16/12 1:19 PM INDEX Wilot, John, Count of Rochester, 642 Windham, William, 349, 677 witchcraft, 35 women: under absolute governments, 735- 36; Calonne's association with, 84; divorce trials, 686-88; education of, 686; in England, 252-53, 686-88, 689, 691-94,696,699-701,736; exclusion from regency, 268m; feminism , current relevance of Madame de Stael for, xxvi; among French Revolutionaries, 315, 323, 329; in French society, 75, 129, 252-53, 377, 406, 699; literature written by, 699; Napoleon and, 411, 430, 470-71, 490 worship, freedom of. See religious toleration and freedom of worship Wriothesley, Thomas, Earl of Southampton , 700 Wycherley, William, 642 Wyndham, William, Lord Grenville, 449 Xerxes, p8 York, Duke of, 656 FrRevol_751-810.indd 55 3/16/12 1:19 PM FrRevol_751-810.indd 56 3/16/12 1:19 PM FrRevol_751-810.indd 57 3/16/12 1:19 PM FrRevol_751-810.indd 58 3/16/12 1:19 PM FrRevol_751-810.indd 59 3/16/12 1:19 PM FrRevol_751-810.indd 60 3/16/12 1:19 PM This book is set in Fournier, a font based on types cut by Pierre Simon Fournier circa 1742 in his Manuel Typographique. These types were some of the most influential designs of the eighteenth century, being among the earliest of the transitional style of typeface , and were a stepping stone to the more severe modern style made popular by Bodoni later in the century. They had more vertical stress than the old-style types, greater contrast between thick and thin strokes, and little or no bracketing on the serifs. Printed on paper that is acid-free and meets the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, Z39·48-1992. 8 Book design by Louise OFarrell Gainesville, Florida Typography by Apex CoVantage Madison, Wisconsin Printed and bound by Edwards Brothers, Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan ...

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ISBN
9781614878636
Related ISBN
9780865977327
MARC Record
OCLC
836874520
Pages
834
Launched on MUSE
2014-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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