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2 4 7 Notes Chapter 1 1. Thanks to Melissa Rosenstein for bringing this to my attention. 2. In the Beginning (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Dairy Industry, Extension Service, Division of Motion Pictures; Everett Idris Evans, supervising specialist, 1935) is available at the Prelinger Archives, www.archive .org/details/IntheBeg1937. Thanks to Michael Dietrich for bringing this film to my attention. 3. See Condit 1990; Gilbert and Howes-Mischel 2004; Hartouni 1997; Michaels 1999; Mitchell 2001; Petchesky 1984, 1987; Stabile 1999; Stormer 1997; Taylor 1992. 4. The emergent fetal subject had been identified in the 1980s by social scientists , including Rosalind Petchesky (1984, 1987), Kristin Luker (1984), Janet Gallagher (1987), and Faye Ginsburg (1989). 5. From 1990 into the new millennium, a number of important studies documented the social appearance of fetal subjects. The German historian Barbara Duden wrote two books about the history of women’s disembodiment and the rise of fetal subjects in medicine and art (Duden 1991, 1993). Katherine Newman’s historical study of fetal iconography in art and science was titled Fetal Positions (Newman 1996). Sarah Franklin wrote an important essay analyzing the roots in bioscienceoftheculturalpreoccupationwithfetuses(Franklin1991,seealso2000), while she kept a close eye on developments in assisted reproductive technologies including in-vitro fertilization, stem cells, and cloning (Franklin 1997), and, with Celia Roberts, on preimplantation genetic diagnosis (Franklin and Roberts 2006). A well-illustrated analysis of pregnancy photographs dissected Lennart Nilsson’s UC-Morgan-ToPress.indd 247 UC-Morgan-ToPress.indd 247 6/8/2009 1:49:26 PM 6/8/2009 1:49:26 PM n o t e s t o p a g e s 2 7 – 4 0 2 4 8 famous images on the cover of Life magazine in 1965 (Matthews and Wexler 2000). The consequences of fetal politics for policing pregnant women’s behavior were analyzed by in a series of provocative essays by Valerie Hartouni (1997), a study of how smoking in pregnancy became stigmatized (Oaks 2001), and studies of legal and legislative efforts to codify fetal personhood and jeopardize women by Cynthia Daniels (1993) and Rachel Roth (2003). Feminist literary and cultural studies scholars such as Lauren Berlant (1997), Donna Haraway (1997), Susan Squier (1994, 2004) and E.A. Kaplan (1994), and Carol Stabile (1992, 1999) analyzed the appearance of fetal imagery in texts and films. Following Barbara Katz Rothman’s work on amniocentesis, a number of feminist anthropologists analyzed the uses and meanings of obstetrical ultrasound, including Lisa Mitchell (2001), Eugenia Georges (Georges and Mitchell 2000), Janelle Taylor (1998, 2004, 2008), and Tine Gammeltoft (2007). Rayna Rapp’s book-length study of prenatal genetic testing was extraordinarily influential, following as it did a decade of articles on the impact of reproductive technologies on the moral and political landscape of the United States (Rapp 1991, 1993, 1995, 2000). Anthropologists also watched as American-style abortion debates and fetal discourses were exported to Ireland (Oaks 1999), Japan (Oaks 1994), Ecuador (L.M. Morgan 1998). With the rise in immigration politics around the year 2000, social scientists devoted greater attention to the emerging phenomenon of fetal citizenship (Holc 2003; Rose 2006). 6. From, uct.php?productid = 16346&cat = 283&page = 1 (accessed August 7, 2006). 7. On this point I disagree with Kristin Luker, who argued that by mid-nineteenth century the public and the medical profession “all seem to have drawn on relatively widely available and popularly accepted beliefs about the development of the embryo” (1984:26). 8. See Clarke 1998; Franklin 1997; Haraway 1997, 2004; Hartouni 1997; Oudshoorn 1994. 9. For intellectual and conceptual histories of embryology and contemporary ethical debates, see Allen 1978; Clarke 1987, 1998, 2004; S.F. Gilbert 1991; Gilbert, Tyler, and Zacklin 2005; Green 2001; Haraway 2004 [1976]; Maienschein 1991, 2003; Mulkay 1997; Noe 2004; Pauly 2000. Thehistoryof latenineteenth-century human embryology, with a focus on German personnel and material modeling, has been admirably described and analyzed by the British historian Nick Hopwood (1999, 2000, 2002, 2007). Chapter 2 1. 4-H Club Web site:; see also University of Illinois Extension Web site, Incubation and Embryology page, (accessed June 25, 2005). UC-Morgan-ToPress.indd 248 UC-Morgan-ToPress.indd 248 6/8/2009 1:49:26 PM 6/8/2009 1:49:26 PM 2 4 9 n o t e s t o p a g e s...


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