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31 Land Snails and Slugs of the Pacific Northwest Taxonomic List This is a list of the land snail and slug species of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Following standard zoological nomenclature, the genera and species are italicised. Many subspecies are included, but subgenera are included only if so doing aids in species identification (i.e., by grouping species that share similar recognizable characteristics). The authority follows the species or subspecies epithet, in parentheses if the name has been modified since the original description. The common name is on the right, followed by a code in brackets indicating the status (indigenous, introduced, etc.) of the species within the Pacific Northwest. A legend of the codes appears in the text box preceding the list, and the terms are further defined below. A few species and most subspecies have not been given a common name, thus that column may be blank. No status code is used for typical subspecies that do not occur within the area of this study (those typical subspecies are presented only to introduce the resident subspecies that follow, e.g., Columella columella, where only C. columella alticola occurs here). Taxonomic nomenclature is modified from Turgeon et al. (1998), Bouchet and Rocroi (2005), and Pilsbry (1939, 1940, 1946, 1948), with references to the work of Roth and Sadeghian (2006) and Grimm et al. (2009). Ranges were determined from most of those same publications, as well as others referenced at the ends of the species accounts and in the references section. In keeping with the intent of this work to identify the species by morphological characteristics, taxonomic order was modified to keep the families together with their “informal groups,” Aulacopoda and Holopoda (Pilsbry, 1896), which have been used in other keys throughout the twentieth century (superfamilies of Pilsbry, 1946; divisions of Burch, 1962; infraorders by Boss, 1982 [in Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005]; and Burch and Pearce, 1990). All slugs were grouped together and placed at the end of the list. Some species were retained on the list, appropriately coded {x} or {?}, even though they are not known to occupy the defined study area, because the nearness of their range leads to the possibility of future discoveries of populations within this area. Some undescribed species are included on the list, indicating known taxa for which a formal description has not yet been published. Some of these were included on the list of “Survey and Manage Species” from the Northwest 32 Land Snails and Slugs of the pacific northwest Forest Plan (USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management 1994). Other undescribed taxa not listed in this work can be found in Roth and Sadeghian (2006) and in unpublished reports by Deixis Consultants (Frest 1999; Frest and Johannes 1995). The first four species listed are semi-amphibious marine associates, not usually included on lists of land or freshwater snails and often omitted from guides to seashells as well. They are included here because one of them, Littorina subrotun­ data, the Newcomb’s littorine snail, has been a candidate for both state and federal listing, and all four species are found in similar habitat. They inhabit the intertidal zone of coastal salt marshes and are usually found in the upper reaches of that zone, which is seldom submerged. Talmadge (1962) said of the Newcomb’s littorine snail, “[T]he species is neither a freshwater, nor a true marine gastropod. It was found that the animals could be both smothered and drowned; that it was quite tolerant of both fresh and salt water, yet would climb out of either when immersed.” The following terms and symbols (abbreviated in the legend below) indicate a species’ status in the Pacific Northwest: Indigenous {*} indicates the species is native to the study area, defined as Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and the part of Montana west of the Continental Divide; Peripheral {x} indicates that the known range of the species includes area adjacent to the study area, where they may yet be found; Review {?} indicates species for which further research is needed to determine the current status or range (it may also be used when the known range is near to but not immediately adjacent to the defined study area, or if it has been reported from the PNW but is not known to be a current inhabitant). Introduced {I} indicates that the species is not native to the PNW; these are usually native to lands other than North America, but they may also have been...


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