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Notes  . Identity and Change 1 EdwardD.NeilltoBoardof Trusteesof MacalesterCollege,May13,1892,copybook, Neill Family Papers, Box 6, Folder 1, Minnesota Historical Society. 2 E.g.,JamesBurtchaell,aCatholicscholar,adoptsthesecularizationthesis,arguingthat colleges founded on Christian principles lost or abandoned their Christian aspects through a variety of internal and external pressures to secularize. See Burtchaell,Dying of the Light. Historian of evangelicalism George Marsden suggests that colleges founded on Christian principles and moral values retained many of these elements butdivorcedthemfromtheirChristianrootsassecularsocietygrewhegemonic.See Marsden, Soul of the American University. Historian Merrimon Cuninggim modified this narrative, suggesting that the distancing that occurred between colleges and denominations was unsurprising, given the rocky character of those relationships, which he calls “uneasy partnerships.” See Cuninggim, Uneasy Partners. Countering these narratives, Conrad Cherry, Betty DeBerg, and Amanda Porterfield have challenged the idea that former church-related colleges are now in fact oceans of unbelief , citing abundant evidence of ongoing and, indeed, vigorous engagement with religion among students on college campuses. See Cherry et al., Religion on Campus. Similarly, historian David Hollinger, pointing to the diversity of religious outlooks now visible in institutions of higher education, has argued that institutional change over the twentieth century is best characterized not as a “secularization,” which has been, by now, associated with strongly negative connotations of loss, but rather as a “de-Christianization,” which has been beneficial and democratic, opening up college education to non-Christian, and particularly Jewish, faculty and students. See Hollinger, “The ‘Secularization’ Question.” 3 Eamon Duffy, “Back to the Cross,” Times Literary Supplement, August 5, 2002, 25. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. . Christian Education and Institution Building in St. Paul 1 On early St. Paul history, see Wingerd, Claiming the City, 19–22. See also Hoffmann, Church Founders, 119–20. 2 Hoffmann, Church Founders, 25. 3 Biographical details of Neill’s life appear in Dupre, Edward Duffield Neill, 24–26; [Janssen], Edward Duffield Neill, typescript, n.p., ca. 1937, Macalester College Archives ; Johnson, A Journey of Hope, 9; and “Dr. Neill Is Dead,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 27, 1893. Neill was sent as a missionary to the white population, but he was not the first Presbyterian missionary in the region. Two Presbyterian brothers, Gideon and Samuel Pond, had been working among the Dakota since 1834. 4 On the early founding of the state, see Folwell, A History of Minnesota. 5 Tewksbury, Founding of American Colleges and Universities, 55. 6 See ibid., 32. Princeton’s original name was the College of New Jersey. 7 “The Yale Report of 1828, Part I, Liberal Education and Collegiate Life,” http://, 4. See also Rudolph, Curriculum, 65–67. 8 Dupre, Edward Duffield Neill, 14, quoting Richard Salter Stores, class of 1839, quoted in Hammond, Remembrance of Amherst, 100. 9 Rudolph, Curriculum, 27, quoting Kelley, Yale, 70. 10 Dupre, Edward Duffield Neill, 14, quoting Stores from Hammond, Remembrance of Amherst. 11 Amherst students had organized a missionary society during the 1820s, which was still functioning during Neill’s time on campus. 12 Neill’s mother was particularly influential in his decision. Her grandfather, father, and several brothers were noted ministers. See Neill Family Papers, Box 1, Folder 2, Minnesota Historical Society. 13 On Andover, see Williams, Andover Liberals, 1–14. 14 Congregationalism, which developed in the eighteenth century, traces its roots to seventeenth-century New England Puritanism, which grew from efforts to reform the Church of England. Similarly, Presbyterianism developed in mid-seventeenthcenturyScotland ,Ireland,andEnglandinresponsetoelementsinAnglicantheology, polity, and worship practice. 15 Williams,AndoverLiberals,13,quotingHenryK.Rowe,HistoryofAndoverTheological Seminary (Newton, Mass.: n.p., 1933), 35. 16 OnNewSchoolandOldSchoolPresbyterians,seeBalmerandFitzmier, Presbyterians, 47–49. 17 Neill Family Papers, Box 1, Folder 3, Minnesota Historical Society. 18 JournaloftheCouncilduringtheFirstSessionoftheLegislativeAssemblyoftheTerritoryof Minnesota (St. Paul, 1850), 68–69, as quoted in Dupre, Edward Duffield Neill, 37–38. 19 Dupre, Edward Duffield Neill, 44–47.  | notes to chapter 2 20 See List of Subscribers to the Preparatory Department of the University of Minnesota , Neill Family Papers, Box 1, Folder 6, Correspondence 1850–52, Minnesota Historical Society. 21 Neill, History of Minnesota, 642–43. Historian James Gray sneers at Neill’s complaint regarding “stamps and stationary” and attributed his resignation to a fit of temper. Given the struggle to support his family and the lack of state funding for its flagship educational institution, Neill’s pique is understandable. See Gray, University of Minnesota , 23. 22 Gray, University of Minnesota, 23. Neill was not entirely unsuccessful in his work with the university, though evidence of success would come only years after he...


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