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THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF ASIAN RESEARCH NBR ANALYSIS VOLUME 13, NUMBER 1, MARCH 2002 Promoting Human Rights in China: 5 Practical Steps for U.S. Policymakers Robert M. Hathaway China’s Recent Approach to Asia: 13 Seeking Long-Term Gains Robert Sutter One Asia Policy or Two? 39 Moscow and the Russian Far East Debate Russia’s Engagement in Asia Elizabeth Wishnick [This page intentionally left blank.] Foreword The three essays in this issue examine the factors that shape Chinese and Russian approaches to theirAsian neighbors and the domestic debates that influence those approaches. These essays present important lessons for U.S.Asia policy, including the advancement of human rights and other issues of concern to the United States. In the first essay, Robert Hathaway, director of the Asia Program at the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars, stresses that, while U.S. cooperation with China is currently targeted on the war on terrorism, human rights must not be neglected, especially as Beijing might try to co-opt U.S. counterterrorism efforts to repress the Muslim Uighurs in Xinjiang. Although the Chinese and U.S. leadership differ fundamentally on important issues, he argues that China and the United States are not predestined to be adversaries. In order to successfully manage the Sino-U.S. relationship in the coming years, Dr. Hathaway suggests that U.S. policymakers adopt a strategic vision that aims to balance the full range ofAmerica’s policy objectives in order to promote the totality of its vital interests. In addition, Dr. Hathaway argues that U.S. policymakers must understand that human rights may be perceived in China as “a peculiarly western, if not American, notion.” In the near-term, Dr. Hathaway concludes , the challenge for U.S. policymakers will be to convince China that human rights are a central part of Sino-American relations, while ensuring that differences on this issue do not prevent other areas of political, economic, and security cooperation. In the second essay, Robert Sutter, professor ofAsian studies at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service, analyzes the domestic motivations behind China’sAsia policy and security framework.Although China’s efforts to engage itsAsian neighbors are often characterized as a response to perceived U.S. containment, Dr. Sutter argues that China’s goals are more calculated and long term.At a time of economic and political transition, he maintains, China seeks to secure its foreign policy environment, promote economic exchanges that benefit its internal development, calm regional fears about its rising power and national intentions, and boost its regional and international power and influence. In these efforts, China has made 3 Richard J. Ellings President The National Bureau of Asian Research considerable progress toward improving relations with most of itsAsian neighbors. Nevertheless , these countries remain cautious about China’s intentions as a rising power, and they continue to look to the United States as a desirable economic and security partner.As U.S. policymakers consider China policy, they must keep in mind thatAmerica’s presence inAsia, especiallyinCentralandSouthAsia,willlargelydeterminewhethercurrenttrendsmoveinthe direction of increased U.S. influence in the region or whether China will reassert its preSeptember 11 efforts to restrict the U.S. presence in the region. ElizabethWishnick, an independent scholar based in NewYork City, is the author of the final essay in this issue. Dr. Wishnick explores the divergent approaches to Russia’sAsia policy in Moscow and the Russian Far East. She argues that Moscow’s foreign policy is aimed at cooperation with China in order to achieve Russia’s strategic-military goals. In contrast, leaders in the Far East feel threatened by China’s geostrategic interests in the region and seek greater economic and political integration with Japan, South Korea, and the United States— countries more willing and able to provide much needed capital to the struggling region.AlthoughMoscowultimatelydecidesRussia ’sforeignpolicy,theRussianFarEasthasprovenits abilitytoinfluencekeynationalpolicydecisions.Thesecenter-regionaldifferencesoverRussia’s AsiapolicyposeimportantchallengestopolicymakersintheAsiaPacific,includingtheUnited States. However, Dr. Wishnick concludes, they also have introduced debate to Russia’s political system and have made it possible for the United States, or other partners, to make progress on economic and cultural cooperation at the regional level despite difficult bilateral relations with Moscow. As with all NBR studies, the authors are solely responsible for the content and recommendations of their papers. 4 Promoting Human Rights in China: Practical Steps for U.S. Policymakers Robert M. Hathaway President GeorgeW. Bush issued a forceful plea for religious and political freedom during his brief visittoBeijing inFebruary2002.InaspeechdeliveredatTsinghuaUniversityand broadcast throughout China, the president declared that “freedom of religion is not...


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