publisher colophon

Index

Aitken, Hugh G. J., 64, 158n14

Allen, Woody, 141

amateur radio (ham radio), 19, 17, 29–36, 40–41, 136, 159n29. See also Radio Club of America

American Marconi, 56, 62

amplitude modulation (of radio waves), 3–5, 16, 43–44, 89–91, 167n40

arc oscillator, 25–28

binary amplitude modulation, 12–13

coinage of term, 45, 161n25

FSK as alternative to, 23, 25–27

high-fidelity, 122, 127–28 Annie Hall,141

arc oscillator, 18, 24–28, 32–33, 48, 51, 77

Armstrong, Edwin Howard (EHA), 1–11 passim, 62

amateur radio friends, 63, 93, 101, 106

audion debate, 80–82, 168n8

balanced amplifier, 78–95, 105, 114, 137, 140, 168n4

Carson, John, 46–47, 84–85, 90, 93–94, 162n30, 167n40

de Forest, Lee, 80–81, 98–99, 168n8

Elwell, Cyril, 28

genius of, 2, 79, 137

as mathematician and theorist, 80–85, 89–91, 94–96, 100–101, 114, 137, 161n29

Radio Club of America, 32–35, 41, 62, 98, 116, 123, 136

RCA, 61–63, 67–76, 78

secrecy, 78–79, 92–93, 100

suicide, 1–2, 8

superheterodyne, 43, 62, 165n4

superregeneration, 62–63, 165n5. See also Armstrong wideband FM radio (AWBFM narrow-band FM (NBFM)

Armstrong wideband FM radio (AWBFM), 10–11, 18, 135–36

EHA publicity campaign, 111–13, 116– 20, 123

EHA’s 1936 paper about, 76, 81, 102

FM pioneers, 120–26, 130–40 passim

KDKA (Westinghouse) contributions, 57, 64, 77, 137

NBFM, 87

network demonstrations, 124–25

resistance to interstation interference discovered, 124

static properties, EHA discovers, 100–101. See also under Radio Club of America RCA

—1933 patents, 73, 89–95

amplifier, 88–95, 105, 114

relationship between static and AWBFM, 1, 77–78, 89–95, 100–33 passim, 137–40

tube noise (hiss), 89–96

—RCA: decision not to back, 108–11, 114–15

disclosure, 96

evaluation of AWBFM, 100–107, 113–14, 116

FCC hearing, 133–34

installation in Empire State Building Television Lab, 96–97, 99–100

long distance overemphasized, 78, 89, 95, 102, 107, 138

slow acceptance of AWBFM by, 126–32

AT120

patents before AWBFM, 48–49, 58, 59–60, 64. See also Carson, John R.Western Electric Company

attorneys (lawyers), 2, 63, 133–34. See also Tunick, Harry

AWBFM. See Armstrong wideband FM radio

Baker, W. R. G., 110–11, 113–14, 129, 175n47

balanced amplifier. See under Armstrong, Edwin Howard (EHA)

Beal, Ralph, 67, 72–73, 111, 113–14

about AWBFM, 117, 119–20, 127

Bellamy, Edward (Looking Backward), 40

Bell Laboratories. See AT56–57. See also RCA: long-distance FM

—AWBFM, 35, 73, 93, 97, 117, 127

EHA discloses to, 96

first field tests, 96, 103–6

black-boxed technology, 132, 135

broadcasting boom (1920s), 37–43, 47. See also congestion of AM broadcasting

Broadcasting magazine (Broadcasting-Broadcasting Advertising), 52–53, 123, 125, 133–34

Bureau of Navigation (Department of Commerce), 38, 41, 42, 161n16

Burghard, George, 34–35, 101–2, 112, 160nn49–50

Burns, Ken, 1. See also canonical history of FM radio

canonical history of FM radio, 1–8, 24, 76–77

Ken Burns and Tom Lewis (Empire of the Air), 1, 8, 156n14

EHA role in creating, 4–5, 111–12 —claims of, 1–2, 4–8, 102

AWBFM disclosure caught RCA off guard in 1933, 61

AWBFM high fidelity, 118–19, 173n23

AWBFM threatened RCA investment in AM radio, 1, 5, 7, 108–9

Carson error curbed FM research, 46–47, 161n29

EHA’s genius, 2, 79, 137

FM abandoned by all but EHA, 18, 47, 49, 111–12

NBFM, 100–101, 111–12;

patents assert that wider frequency swing suppresses static, 100–101

RCA retarded spread of AWBFM, 1, 7–8

—Lessing, Lawrence, and Edwin Howard Armstrong: Man of High Fidelity, 1, 5–8, 60–63, 78–79, 156n11, 165n5

factual errors of, 46–47, 61, 101–2, 108–9, 118–19, 123, 161n29

influence on later historians, 1, 4–6, 8, 156n13

capacitance (capacitor and condenser). See resonance

Cardozo, Benjamin, 98–99

Carson, John R.: balanced amplifiers, 79–80, 84–85, 93–94

coinage of “frequency modulation,” “amplitude modulation,” 44, 161n25

NBFM, 44–47, 53–60 passim, 71, 161n29, 167n40

mathematics, 81

modulation theory misinterpreted, 46–47, 54–60 passim, 76, 105, 161n29, 167n40

single-sideband modulation, 43, 46, 79, 85, 161n22

cascaded amplification (staged amplification), 89, 91–92, 99–100

CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System), 124, 131

clear-channel AM stations, 108, 120–21

coherer, 12–16, 19–21, 23, 28–30, 40

Commerce, Department of, 34, 38, 40, 41, 42. See also Federal Radio Commission Hoover, Herbert National Radio Conferences Navigation, Bureau of Radio Act of 1912

condenser. See resonance

congestion of AM broadcasting (1920s), 37–39, 40–42, 136

—nontechnological fixes, 38–39, 41–42, 121

FM research spurred by, 60, 136 —technological fixes, 43

NBFM proposed as, 43–44, 54–55, 60, 135, 136, 140

Conrad, Frank, 49, 51, 65

NBFM, 44–45, 167n40

continuous-wave radiation, 24, 28, 45–46, 158n14

corporate research, 6–8, 28–29, 55, 57–61, 78, 97

Crosby, Murray, 35. See also RCA: long-distance FM

—FM (not AWBFM), 58, 65–70, 72–73, 75, 167n39

published papers on, 35, 69, 76, 130

crystal detector, 10, 28–31

crystal oscillator, 43, 49–53, 88

crystal oscillator frequency modulation, 49–53, 88

cultural context and technology, 2, 19, 36, 109, 137

amateur radio, 30–31, 136

externalism and social construction, 9

postwar culture, 141–42

de Forest, Lee, 35, 40, 114, 117, 122

audion debate, 81, 168n8

FSK, 26

regeneration litigation, 98–99, 111

DeMars, Paul, 120, 121

Doolittle, Franklin M., 122, 125

doubler. See frequency multiplier

Douglas, Susan, 8, 30, 156n14

drift, frequency: in AM radio, 38

in FM radio, 65

Edison, Thomas, 139–40

Edison Electric Company, 55

educational radio, 121, 134, 140, 141

Edwin Howard Armstrong: Man of High Fidelity.See canonical history of FM radio

EHA. See Armstrong, Edwin Howard

Ehret wireless telegraph and telephone system, 25–28, 37, 72, 157n7

first FM patent application filed, 18–24

reactance modulation, 23, 88–89

slope detector, 22–23, 26, 28, 87, 137

Electro Import Company (Electro Importing Company) and Electro Import Catalogue,31–32

Elwell, Cyril F., 26–28

externalist history of technology, 8–9, 139

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 41, 99, 122, 131

AM, 3–4, 39, 42–43, 120–21

radio spectrum paradigm, 39, 42

report to Congress, 108–9. See also Federal Radio Commission

Federal Radio Commission, 38–39, 41–43, 121, 140

Federal Telegraph Company, 26–27

feedback. See Armstrong, Edwin Howard: super-regeneration

Ferguson, Eugene, 19

Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey, 16, 26–28, 35, 122

fidelity. See high fidelity

FMBI (FM Broadcasters, Incorporated). See FM pioneers

FM facsimile, 49, 88, 116–17, 119

FM network demonstrations, 124–25, 130

FM pioneers, 1, 35, 68, 70, 99, 116–17, 137–38

AWBFM, 124–25, 130, 137

Baker, W. R. G., 129

canonical history of FM, 5

FCC FM hearing, 133–34

FMBI, 125, 133–34

RCA, 130–32, 138

Shepard, John, 3rd, and Paul DeMars, 120–22, 124–25, 130

FM radiotelegraphy. See FSK (frequency shift keying)

FRC. See Federal Radio Commission

frequency doubler (frequency multiplier), 53, 89

frequency drift, 38, 65

frequency multiplier (frequency doubler and frequency tripler), 53, 89

frequency tripler (frequency multiplier), 89

FSK (frequency shift keying), 22–23, 25–28, 48, 83–85, 164n63

General Electric Company (GE), 27, 100, 128

high-frequency alternator, 24, 158n14

Radio Group member, 55–56, 64

RCA unification plan, 61–62, 64

—FM, 48, 122, 124–27, 129, 131–32

influence of research on later work, 61–62, 64–67, 136–37

geographical patterns of FM patent holders, 51, 58–59

long-distance (long-range) FM. See under RCA

Gernsback, Hugo, 31–33

Godley, Paul (Radio Club of America), 33, 35, 117, 122

ham radio. See amateur radio

Hansell, Clarence (RCA), 56, 140

FM patents, 58, 69, 73, 79, 105

limiter circuit, 57

misinterprets Carson modulation theory, 46–47, 76, 104–5, 162n29, 167n40

NBFM, 44, 46–47

opposition to frequency swing, 71–72, 104–5. See also RCA: long-distance FM

—AWBFM: advocacy of, 127, 131

observes, 96, 101, 103–6

skepticism about commercial success of, 106, 130–31

wide frequency swing, change of mind about, 106. See also RCA

Hanson, O. B. (RCA), 126, 130–31, 132

Harbord, James (RCA), 65–66, 105

high-brow culture and FM broadcasting, 141

high fidelity (hi-fi): AM radio, 122, 127–28

FM radio. See also under Armstrong wideband FM radio (AWBFM)

high-frequency alternator, 24, 158n14

Hogan, John V. L., 35, 122

Hong, Sungook, 17, 40

Hoover, Herbert, 34, 40–41, 136

Horn, Charles W. (KDKA, NBC), 51–53, 97, 129

Hughes, Thomas Parke, 8, 9, 15

independent inventor, 2, 7, 48, 57–58, 60, 99, 114;

EHA as, 137

inductance (inductor). See resonance

instantaneous frequency, 3, 16–17, 45, 87, 155n5

Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE), 34–35, 55, 112, 129

AWBFM demonstration, 116–21, 123, 173n23

Carson, John, 46

EHA, 62, 98–99

National Radio Conferences, 40–41. See also Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers

internalist history of technology, 8–9, 139

KDKA radio station (Pittsburgh), 44, 48–59, 72, 97, 129, 163n45

shared FM research results with RCA, 61–62, 64–67, 136–37. See also Westinghouse

Keith, Michael (Sounds of Change), 8, 157n7

lawsuits, 18–19, 64, 98–99, 111, 170n46

AWBFM, 7–8, 104–5. See also lawyers

lawyers (attorneys), 2, 63, 133–34. See also Tunick, Harry

Lewis, Tom, 8, 156n14. See also canonical history of Fm radio

limiter circuit, 18, 24, 53, 57, 89, 158n12

Little, Donald (KDKA), 50–51, 163n45

Looking Backward (Bellamy), 40

low-power FM broadcasting, 142

low-static FM (or low-tube-hiss FM). See Arm-strong wideband FM radio

MacKenzie, Donald, 138–39

masculinity and radio technology, 30

mathematics, 100, 136, 155n5

Carson, John, 44–46, 53, 85

Crosby, Murray, 65–66, 76, 81

EHA, 81–82, 85, 162n29

KDKA (Westinghouse), 66, 136

NBFM, 44–46, 155n5

resonance, 16–17

Modern Electrics magazine, 31, 33

multipath (multiphase) fading, 68–70, 72

multiplier, frequency (frequency doubler and frequency tripler), 53, 89

music, 72, 141

AWBFM, 105, 118, 123, 125

musical arc, 24–25

narrowband FM (NBFM), 10, 66, 111, 135–36

canonical history overemphasis of, 111–12

Carson, John, 44–47, 53–54, 57, 60, 85, 90

congestion and static, 43–44, 54–55, 57, 60, 135, 136, 140

EHA, 63, 69, 85–88, 90, 105

KDKA (Westinghouse), 44–45, 52–54, 66

RCA, 57, 63, 66, 72

National Radio Conferences, 34, 40–42, 135

natural law, 2, 9–10, 135, 140

Navigation, Bureau of (Navigation Service), 38, 41–42, 161n16

NBC (National Broadcasting Company), 51–52, 56, 65, 124–26

AWBFM skepticism, 127–28, 130–32

AWBFM testing, 96–100, 106, 112

high-fidelity FM, 119

profits, 108–9

NBFM. See narrowband FM

newspapers, 33, 111–12, 117

analogy to describe broadcasting, 40, 42

Noble, Daniel E., 122

Noble, David, 55, 60

nonprofit broadcasters, 120, 140

normal practice, 23, 28, 44, 79, 88, 124, 132

Nyman, Alexander, 28–29, 51, 158n27

patent court: AWBFM, 7–8, 104–5

Ehret FM, 18–19, 24

regeneration, 98–99, 111, 170n46

patents: FM-related patents, 47–49

as historical texts, 10, 19

Peterson, Harold O., 31–32, 56–57, 63, 75, 96, 103, 164n63

phase modulation, 3, 63, 87, 97, 126, 158n27

EHA, 61, 75, 89

similarity to FM, 47, 89, 155n3 PIRE. See Proceedings of the Institute of RadioEngineers

Pollack, Dale (RCA), 129–30

Poulsen, Valdemar, 12, 18, 24–28, 77, 157 (epigraph note)

printing press analogy of broadcasting, 40, 42

Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (Proceedings of the IRE): Crosby, Murray, articles, 76, 126

EHA articles, 76, 79–80, 83, 65, 117

FM articles nearly but not published, 66–67, 75–76

FM articles published, 46–47, 76;

Proceedings of the Radio Club of America, compared with, 34 Proceedings of the Radio Club of America. See under Radio Club of America

Radio Act of 1912, 39–40

Radio Club of America, 32–35, 159n40

Burghard, George, 35, 101, 112, 160nn49–50

discussions about FM in early 1920s, 60

EHA, 35, 41, 62, 98, 116, 123, 136

Godley, Paul, 33, 35, 117

National Radio Conferences, 34, 41, 136

presidents, 32, 34, 101, 160n49;

Proceedings of, 34, 60

Runyon, Carman, Jr., 35, 92–93, 100, 122, 160n50

transatlantic shortwave demonstrated by, 33, 116–17, 136. See also under Armstrong, Edwin Howard

—AWBFM, 123, 142

members who advocated, 33, 35, 117, 136

members who helped test, 35, 93, 100–101, 106, 112, 117, 136

Radio Corporation of America. See RCA Radio Engineering Laboratories (REL), 122, 125, 131–32

Radio Group patent pool, 55–56, 64, 66, 98

radio network, 56, 65, 97, 108, 135, 138, 141

CBS, 124, 131

FM network demonstrations, 124–25, 130

Yankee Network, 120–22, 126. See also NBC Radio Service Bulletin (Bureau of Navigation), 42, 161n16

radio spectrum, 37–43, 136, 161n16

radiotelegraphy, 12–16, 40

arc oscillator system, 18, 24–28, 77

crystal detector, 30, 33

EHA invention, 83–85

Ehret system, 18–23

RCA commercial service, 68–71, 105. See also FSK

radiotelephony. See amplitude modulation

arc oscillator; AWBFM; long-distance FM; NBFM

RCA, 51–52

corporate structure, 55–56

EHA relationship, 62–63, 93, 99, 113–14

NBFM, 44, 46–47, 56–57, 63, 72

regeneration litigation, 98–99

unification plan, 61–62, 64–67, 136–37. See also Armstrong, Edwin Howard AWBFM; Beverage, Harold; Crosby, Murray; Hansell, Clarence; RCA Victor

—long-distance FM: 56–59, 61–76, 97

Beverage, Peterson mid-1920s work, 31

collaboration with EHA, 61, 63–64, 67–76, 87–88, 112

frequency deviation, 92

KDKA (Westinghouse), 54, 61–62, 64–67, 72, 136–37

unification plan, 61–62, 64–67

RCA Communications, Incorporated (RCAC). See RCA

RCA Manufacturing, Incorporated (RCAM). See RCA

RCA Patent Department, 63, 75–76, 100, 110–11, 120

RCA unification plan, 63–66, 136–37

RCA Victor Company, 64, 65, 97, 106, 109, 110–11, 112, 117. See also RCA; Victor Talking Machine Company

REL. See Radio Engineering Laboratories

resonance (resonant circuits, tuned circuits, tuning), 38–39, 62, 87, 89, 124, 139, 165n4

arc oscillator, 24–27

crystal oscillator, 43, 49

Ehret FM, 19, 22–24

formula, 16–17

Runyon, Carman, Jr., 35, 92–93, 100, 117–18, 122, 125, 160n50

Sadenwater, Harry (RCA, Radio Club of America), 35, 105–6, 109, 112, 117, 123, 127–30

Sarnoff, David (RCA), 61–64, 93, 96, 99, 109, 113;

Lessing, 7, 61, 108

unification plan, 63–66, 136–37

Schairer, Otto S. (RCA), 110–11, 119–20

Schmeling-Stribling fight, 72–73, 75, 119

secrecy, 76, 136

EHA’s tendency toward, 6, 35, 78–79, 92–93, 100, 112, 137

EHA and RCA’s FM research, 61, 75, 112

serendipity, 77–78, 85, 95, 100, 115, 167n1

Shepard, John, 3rd, 120–26, 130, 133, 138

sidebands, 3–4, 43, 45–46, 71, 100–101

single-sideband modulation (SSB), 43, 46, 79, 85, 161n22

balanced amplifier, 79

slope detector (reactance demodulator), 21–24, 26, 28, 87–88, 137

social context as an influence on technology, 2, 8, 9–10, 38–31, 35–36, 114, 122, 135–40

sound effects, 118–19, 125, 173n23

Sounds of Change (Sterling and Keith), 8

spark gap, 12–13, 15–16, 19, 21, 40

spectrum paradigm. See radio spectrum static

(static noise), 43

balanced amplifier, 82–88, 90, 105, 140

belief that wider FM channels allow more, 85, 87, 90–91, 95, 101, 140

belief that wider frequency swing of FM suppresses, 100–103

distortion, 87, 91

electrification, 38

NBFM and, 43–44, 54–55, 57, 60, 135, 136, 140

tube noise, 91–92, 94–95

Staudenmaier, John, 8–9

stereophonic radio: FM, 134, 141, 176n10

AM, 127–28

Sterling, Christopher (Sounds of Change), 8, 157n7

Stokes, W. E. D. (Weddy), Jr., 32–33, 159n40

superheterodyne circuit, 43, 62, 165n4

superregeneration circuit, 62–63, 165n5

tacit knowledge, 19, 30

Taylor, C. H. (RCAC), 65, 103, 104

technological determinism, 9–10, 138–39

telephony, overland: audio fidelity compared with AWBFM, 119

metaphor for radio broadcasting, 40

television, 2, 39, 60, 96–97, 100, 109, 111

channel 1 and AWBFM, 126, 133–34

FM used for, 71, 88, 119

Thomson, Elihu, 27

transatlantic shortwave radio. See shortwave radio

tripler. See frequency multiplier

tube noise (or tube hiss), 89–95, 105, 114, 123

Tunick, Harry (RCA), 75, 100–101. See also lawyers

tuning. See resonance

unification plan (of RCA), 61, 64–66, 136–37

United States, FM bin, 141

U.S. Congress, 33–34, 38–42, 99, 108, 127

U.S. Patent Office, 1, 19, 63, 85

Victor Talking Machine Company, 64–65. See also RCA; RCA Victor

Vincenti, Walter, 139

Wajcman, Judy, 138–39

Walpole, Horace, 77–78, 115, 167 (epigraph note)

Warner, K. B. (QST), 41, 125

Western Electric Company (manufacturing arm of ATimage

Manufacturing Company), 28, 37, 48–59, 61–62, 64–67, 72, 136–37

regeneration patent litigation, 98, 170n46

FM pioneers, 122, 131

World War I, 27–28, 35, 37, 79, 136

EHA military service, 34–35, 62

World War II, 120, 124, 141

Wozencraft, Frank W. (RCA lawyer), 133–34

X modulation, 73, 75

Yankee Network, 120–22, 126

Previous Chapter

Essay on Sources

Additional Information

ISBN
9780801899133
Related ISBN
9780801894404
MARC Record
OCLC
794700354
Pages
187-191
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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