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Glossary Abhinavagupta—ca. 950–1020 c.e.; one of the greatest philosophers and mystics of India who wrote a commentary on the Nāt ˙ ya-Sāstra. Acharya (Ācārya)—great spiritual teacher or founder of a lineage. Adhvāryu—Vedic priest associated with the Yajur-Veda. Adrishta (adr ˙ s ˙ t ˙ a)—“unseen,” referring to the unseen merit that accrues to the sacrificer or musician through the principle of Apūrva. Āgama—medieval collection of revealed texts in Sanskrit that comprises instructions for rituals, temple construction, and religious practices for the followers of Siva, Vishnu, or other deities. This category includes the Saiva Āgamas, the Vaishnava Pāñcarātras, and Sākta Tantras. Agni—the god of the sacred fire in the Vedic religion. Agra Gharana—the oldest and richest tradition of Hindustani classical vocal music, with direct ties to the Dhrupad and Dhamar music of the temples in Mathura and Vrindaban. Ālāp—introductory presentation of a Rāga in Indian music without percussion accompaniment . Āl⁄ l⁄ vār—group of twelve Tamil poet-saints from ca. fifth century to ninth century c.e. who produced roughly four thousand songs and poems that had been collected by the tenth century and comprise the early hymnal for the Srı̄vaishnava Sampradāya. The complete work is known as the Divya-Prabandham. Apabhramsa—an early class of Prākrit language that developed into Braj Bhās ˙ ā and Hindi. Apsarās—dancers in the heavenly court of Indra. Apūrva—the principle outlined in Mı̄māṁsā philosophy whereby the result or merit of a sacrifice , quantified through ritual time units and the syllables of mantra chanting, is delayed or stored within the soul of the sacrificer to be reclaimed at a future time, usually in heaven or in the form of immortality. This principle also operates within the domain of music and the counting of rhythm. Ārati—the ceremony of making a series of offerings, including flowers, incense, water, food, and the like, as part of the Pūjā ritual service. Aryan (Ārya)—a term meaning “noble” or “cultured,” normally associated with a language group. The ancient Indians and Iranians are the only groups to have employed the term to themselves. Ashtachap (as ˙ t ˙ achāp)—a group of eight poet-saints associated with the Pushti Mārg or Vallabha Sampradāya, the most famous being Sur Das. They were among the forerunners of northern Hindustani classical music as they wrote and sung compositions in the genre of Dhrupad and 224 • Glossary Dhamar. Their poems comprise the bulk of the Pushti Mārg hymnals in use, of which there are many. Ātman (Daiva Ātman)—the spiritual soul of the living entity, believed according to Vedanta philosophy to be equivalent or part of Brahman. Balarāma—the elder brother of Krishna who was also an incarnation of Vishnu. Bhagavad-Gı̄tā—Sanskrit text; famous discourse by Krishna in eighteen chapters that forms part of the epic Mahābhārata. Many pious Hindus consider this work to be the best summation of Hindu teachings, especially with regard to Bhakti. Bhāgavata-Purān ˙ a—Sanskrit text; the most famous of the Vaishnava Purān ˙ as, describing in detail the various avatāras (incarnations) of Vishnu and presenting the entire life of Krishna in the tenth book. Bhakti Sangı̄t—Devotional musics, especially those that have incorporated the classical traditions . Music as part of temple worship from medieval times to the present, including the subcategories of Kı̄rtan and Bhajan. Bhajan is a sub-category of Bhakti Sangı̄t, referring to worship music or music as an offering to God. Bharata Muni—the legendary author of the musical treatise Nāt ˙ ya-Sāstra (ca. 400 b.c.e.) outlining the theory and practice of Gandharva Sangı̄ta. Bhāva—emotional state or experience derived from witnessing drama or music. Brahmā—the Creator God of Hindu tradition, part of the Trimūrti, the group of three great gods that also includes Vishnu and Siva. Braj Bhasha (Braj Bhās ˙ ā)—dialect of medieval Hindi prominent in the northern region of Braj and beyond and one of the favorite vernacular languages for devotional poetry describing Krishna. Brihaddesı̄—Sanskrit text; musical treatise of the eighth or ninth century c.e., the first musical work to identify the concept of a Rāga and to incorporate Tantric discussions of Nāda-Brahman . Caurāsı̄ Pad—Braj...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781611171082
Related ISBN
9781611170375
MARC Record
OCLC
824698506
Pages
256
Launched on MUSE
2014-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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