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Notes Abbreviations ORA R. N. Scott et al., eds., The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 70 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880–1901). ORN Richard Rush et al., eds., Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, 31 vols., series 1 (Washington , D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1894–1927). SFDP Letters John Hayes, ed., Samuel Francis Du Pont: A Selection of His Civil War Letters, 2 vols. (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969). Introduction 1. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, especially chap. 4. Ward’s recent study Slaves’ War offers numerous experiences of slaves on plantations during the war. 2. Cecelski, Waterman’s Song, 123–27; Gara, Liberty Line, chap. 1. 3. Cecelski, Waterwan’s Song, xvi, 53. Abraham H. Galloway, a slave who escaped from the village of Smithville to Philadelphia on a schooner in 1857, returned to New Bern during the war as a Union spy and abolitionist leader. 4. Gara, Liberty Line, 28–29, 192–94; Cecelski, Waterman’s Song, 8–11, 58, 65–66; Hoag Levins, “New Jersey’s Underground Railroad Myth-Buster,” June 4, 2001,; Fladeland, Men and Brothers , 343. See also Pacheco, The Pearl. Gara argues that fewer slaves escaped along the so-called underground railroad than was previously thought. 5. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 23; Cecelski, Waterman’s Song, 123; Levins, “New Jersey’s Underground Railroad Myth-Buster.” 6. Ramold, Slaves, Sailors, Citizens, 39–41; A. D. Harrell to Commander Potomac Flotilla, November 8, 1861, in Berlin et al., eds., Freedom, 1:78; Goodwin, Team of Rivals, 369–70; Wartman, “Contraband, Runaways, Freedmen.” 7. The most recent studies of the blockading squadrons are Browning, Success Was All That Was Expected and From Cape Fear to Cape Charles. See also Trotter , Ironclads and Columbiads; Roberts, Now for the Contest; and Reed, Combined Operations in the Civil War. Personal memoirs by African Americans include King, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp, and Gould, Diary of a Contraband. For black sailors, see Ramold, Slaves, Sailors, Citizens. Chapter 1. Union Navy Policy toward Contrabands 1. S. H. Stringham to G. Welles, July 18, 1861 enclosure, Commander Oliver S. Glisson to Flag-Officer Silas Stringham, July 15, 1861, ORN, 6:8–9. See also “Blockade!”: The Blockading of the Southern Seaports in the Civil War,” www civilwarhome./blockade.htm. A replica of Stingray Lighthouse is displayed at Stingray Marina, near Deltaville in Mathews County; see .htm. 2. Glisson to Stringham, July 15, 1861, ORN, 6:8–9; Glisson to Stringham, July 17, 1861, ORN, 6:9; “Silas Horton Stringham,” in Virtual American Biographies, Oliver Glisson, who became a commodore in the U.S. Navy, returned to Norfolk, Virginia, after the war. His house at 405 Duke Street in the historic district is now a retirement home for men. 3. Stringham to Welles, July 18, 1861, ORN, 6:10–11; Welles to Stringham, July 22, 1861, ORN, 6:10. 4. W. R. Palmer to Prof. A. D. Bache, June 8, 1861, ORN, 4:505–6. In this June 8 report, Captain Palmer wrote that he was indebted to Commander Stephen C. Rowan, commanding the sloop Pawnee on station off Aquia Creek, for his assistance and protection. Alluding to the Pawnee’s unusual hull design, which enabled it to carry heavy armament on a shallow draft, Palmer wrote, “The proximity of her guns may have had a good influence on the rebels there, as, although I landed and scoured the woods at these places with an escort of two officers and twenty men only, I was not disturbed by them.” 5. S. C. Rowan to Welles, June 12, 1861, ORN, 4:508. The commander of the Potomac Flotilla, James H. Ward, had ordered Rowan in the Pawnee to keep a watchful eye on rebel activities in the Potomac and to organize rowboat patrols at night off Maryland wharves and creeks. 6. Rowan to Welles, June 18, 1861, ORN, 4:521–22; Schneller, A Quest for Glory,181–83. Later, however, Secretary Welles ordered the goods returned to the man, informing Dahlgren that “reliable parties” had given the department statements about his character. 7. Dahlgren to Welles, June 18, 1861, ORN, 4:522–23; Rowan to Welles, June 25, 1861, ORN, 4:535; Dahlgren to Welles, June 23, 1861, ORN, 4:532...


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