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207 Notes Introduction 1. Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel H. Elbert, Hawaiian Dictionary (Honolulu : University of Hawai‘i Press, 1986); Jonathan K. Osorio, Dismembering Lāhui: A History of the Hawaiian Nation to 1887 (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2002), ix. 2. An Act to Prevent the Spread of Leprosy was signed by Lota Kapuāiwa (Kamehameha V) on January 3, 1865. 3. William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (New York: Doubleday, 1998). 4. Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Con­ sequences of 1492 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972); Elizabeth A. Fenn, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775–82 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001); McNeill, Plagues and Peoples. 5. O. A. Bushnell, The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawai‘i (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1993); John Miles, Infectious Diseases: Colonising the Pacific? (Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago Press, 1997); David Stannard, Before the Horror: The Population of Hawai‘i on the Eve of Western Contact (Honolulu: Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawai‘i, 1989). 6. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 22–23. For more works that focus on the role of disease, medicine, or public health in history, see also David Arnold, Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India; Anne Perez Hattori, Colonial Dis-Ease: U.S. Navy Health Policies and the Chamorros of Guam, 1898–1941; Judith Leavitt, Typhoid Mary: Captive to the Public’s Health; Roy Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity; Charles E. Rosenberg, Cholera Years; Nancy Tomes, The Gospel of Germs: Men, Women and the Microbe in American Life; Michael Worboys, Spreading Germs: Disease Theories and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865–1900. 7. Greg Dening’s metaphor of islands and beaches remains a useful tool of analysis in examining cross-cultural encounters; see Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land, Marquesas 1774–1880 (Chicago: The Dorsey Press, 1980). 208 notes to pages 3–5 8. Alfred W. Crosby, Germs, Seeds, and Animals: Studies in Ecological History (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1994). 9. For a list of diseases introduced to Hawai‘i during the nineteenth century as well as corresponding population numbers, see Table 1. 10. In an effort to overcome the stigma attached to leprosy, health professionals now use the term “Hansen’s disease” to refer to the disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This also provides a useful distinction between infections thought to be leprosy and those scientifically proven to be so. As this is a work in nineteenth-century history, the term “leprosy” will most often be used, but when appropriate will also be interchanged with “Hansen’s disease.” 11. Guenter B. Risse, Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999); Mary Douglas, “Witchcraft and Leprosy: Two Strategies of Exclusion,” Man XXVI (1991). 12. Sheldon Watts, Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997). 13. Luke Demaitre, Leprosy in Premodern Medicine: A Malady of the Whole Body (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007); Carole ­ Rawcliffe, Leprosy in Medieval England (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2006). 14. Megan Vaughan, “Without the Camp: Institutions and Identities in the Colonial History of Leprosy,” in Curing Their Ills: Colonial Power and African Illness (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991); Eric Silla, People Are Not the Same: Leprosy and Identity in Twentieth-Century Mali (Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1998). 15. Jane Buckingham, Leprosy in Colonial South India: Medicine and Confinement (London: Palgrave, 2002), 36–60. 16. Warwick Anderson, Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2006); Michelle T. Moran, Colonizing Leprosy: Imperialism and the Politics of Public Health in the United States, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007). 17. Rod Edmond, Leprosy & Empire: A Medical and Cultural History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 12. 18. See also Richard Stewart, Leper Priest of Moloka‘i: The Father Damien Story (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2000); John Tayman, The Colony (New York: Scribner, 2006); Anwei Skinsnes Law and Henry G. Law, Father Damien . . . “A Bit of Taro, A Piece of Fish, and A Glass of Water” (Seneca Falls, N.Y.: IDEA, 2009). 19. For works that expand the view on the patients’ experiences in history of leprosy in Hawai‘i, see Pennie Moblo, “Defamation by Disease: Leprosy, Myth and Ideology in Nineteenth Century Hawai‘i” (PhD diss., University of Hawai‘i, 1996); Noenoe...


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