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584 TRUBNIKOVA, Mariia (1835–1897) Leader of the Russian women’s movement in the 1860s and 1870s; co-founder (1861) and Chairwoman of the philanthropic Obshchestvo Dostavlenniia Deshevykh Kvartir i Drugikh Posobii Nuzhdaiushchimsia Zhiteliam S-Peterburga (Society for Cheap Lodging and Other Aid to the Residents of St Petersburg); translator and publisher. Mariia Vasil’evna Trubnikova, the daughter of a political exile, was born on 6 January 1835 in the eastern Siberian settlement of Petrovskii zavod (Petrov’s mill). Her father, military officer Vasilii Petrovich Ivashev (1797–1840), was from a wealthy noble family from the Simbirsk guberniia (now the oblast or province of Ulianovskaya). In 1819, Ivashev joined the secret masonic society, the Soiuz Blagodenstviia (Prosperity Union). Although he did not take part in the rebellion against the tsarist regime of 14 December 1825 (after which all members of the secret societies were named ‘Decembrists’), his name was betrayed during the subsequent inquiry and he was arrested and sentenced to exile in Siberia. Maria’s mother, Camille Ledantu (1808–1839), was the daughter of a French Viscountess who had escaped to Russia during the French Revolution, and a French merchant. Camille followed Ivashev to Siberia, where they married (1832) and had four children: Alexander, Mariia, Peter and Vera (Alexander died at the age of two). In 1839, Camille died in childbirth (as did the baby, Elizabeth) and Vasilii’s sudden death followed a year later. The children were brought up in the family of Vasilii Ivashev’s sister, Princess Ekaterine Khovanskaia , with the family name of Vasiliev. Only in 1856, when amnesty had been proclaimed , could Mariia, Peter and Vera claim back their father’s name and title. Mariia’s brother, Peter Ivashev (1837–1896), became an artillery officer; her sister, Vera Ivasheva (1838–?), married A. A. Tcherkesov and became one of the leaders of the Russian women’s movement. Mariia Trubnikova was raised in an atmosphere of pious reverence for Decembrist ideals. Since the large and harmonious family of her aunt had always traditionally engaged in charity work, she too became involved in philanthropy from her early youth. She received a good education from highly qualified tutors in European languages , history, literature and music. In 1854, she married Konstantin Vasil’evich 585 Trubnikov (1829–1904), then a government official, and the young couple settled down in St Petersburg. They had four daughters [one of them, Olga (1858–1953), left memoirs]. With Mariia Trubnikova’s dowry, her husband was able to found a banking house and Zhurnal Dlia Akzionerov (The stockholder magazine). Mariia Trubnikova’s salon in St Petersburg was a meeting place for liberals and radicals. Mariia Trubnikova made a good impression on people: she was candid, considerate , a convincing speaker and “a born social worker”—as one contemporary, Vladimir Stasov (the brother of Nadezhda Stasova), described her (Stasov 1899, 43–46). In the spring of 1859, with the help of Anna Filosofova, Nadezhda Stasova and other members of her salon, Trubnikova made plans for a new organization, the Obshchestvo Dostavlenniia Deshevykh Kvartir i Drugikh Posobii Nuzhdaiuchimsia Zhiteliam S-Peterburga (Society for Cheap Lodging and Other Aid to the Residents of St Petersburg). Its purpose was to provide poor families and unassisted women with decent and inexpensive places to live. By 1861, when the statute of the society was adopted, it boasted several hundred members and Mariia Trubnikova was unanimously elected Chairwoman . Due to delicate health, Trubnikova spent the winter and summer of 1861 in the south of France, where she received treatment for health problems. During this period she read, and was deeply impressed by Jenny d’Héricourt’s La femme affranchie: réponse à M. M. Michelet, Proudhon, E. de Girardin, A. Comte et aux autres novateurs modernes (The emancipated woman: a reply to Monsieurs Michelet, Proudhon, etc. and other modern innovators, 1860). She resolved to translate it into Russian (though she never did) and entered into correspondence with the author. Through d’Héricourt, she was put into contact with Josephine Butler, a famous activist of the British women’s movement, and Marie Goegg, the founder and Chairwoman of the International Association of Women (founded in 1868). In 1869, Trubnikova’s poor health took her abroad once again. She met Josephine Butler and Marie Goegg in Switzerland and maintained friendly relations with them both. According to leaders of Russian women’s groups (Anna Filosofova, V. Tcherkesova and others), Trubnikova was regarded by many European feminists as a leading figure of the Russian women’s movement...


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