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411 PAVLYCHKO (PAVL’YCHKO), Solom’iya (Solom’ea, Solom’iia) Dm’ytrivna (1958–1999) Ukrainian scholar and central figure in the late twentieth-century Ukrainian feminist movement; Senior Research Associate at the Institute of Literature, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences; Doctor of Philology/ professor at the National University (‘KyivMohyla Academy’), Kiev. Solom’iya Pavlychko was born in Lviv (Ukraine). Her parents were Dmytro Pavlychko (b. 1929), Ukrainian poet and influential figure in the Ukrainian movement for independence, and Bohdana Pavlychko, a doctor. Pavlychko spent most of her adult life in Kiev, where she studied English and French at the Taras Shevchenko Kiev State University from 1975 to 1985. After the completion of her doctoral studies, she began her professional career as a literary translator at the Institute of Literature, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev. The range of Pavlychko’s activities and initiatives make her a significant public figure in Ukraine: the translator of English and American writers (such as M. Twain, E. Hemingway, D. H. Lawrence and W. Golding); author of the important monograph, Dyskurs modernizmu v ukrażns’kii literaturi (Modernist discourse in Ukrainian literature, 1997); key figure in Ukrainian literary circles of the late 1980s and 1990s and provocative feminist critic of longestablished dogmas in Ukrainian society, culture and academic scholarship. After 1986, the personal and the political became intrinsically connected in the lives of many Ukrainians, who were surviving deep trauma under the shadow of Chernobyl . In 1989, Pavlychko supported the Narodnyi Rukh Ukraïny (People’s Movement of Ukraine), a new political party founded by members of the Writers’ Union of Ukraine. As a political opposition movement, the Rukh united many groups: those who demanded the restoration of the Ukrainian language and political independence for Ukraine; those campaigning for the democratic freedoms of former political prisoners ; religious and ethnic minorities (such as Ukrainian Catholics and Crimean Tatars), as well as anti-militarist and ecological activists (e.g. the Association of Mothers of Soldiers in Ukraine). Rukh was successful in the election campaign of 1990 and eventually formed a political fraction—the Narodna Rada (People’s Council)—within 412 the Verkhovna Rada Ukraïny (Supreme Council of Ukraine), emerging as a reformist opposition movement by early 1990. As a founding member of the Zhinocha Hromada (Women’s Community), Pavlychko was instrumental in giving a voice to the women’s wing of Rukh, establishing Zhinocha Hromada as an independent national organization in 1991. In her first book in English, Letters from Kiev (subsequently published in Ukrainian), Pavlychko captured the spirit of that turbulent time: the collapse of Soviet power accompanied by political and economic upheaval. Written to her Canadian friend Dr Bohdan Krawchenko, Letters from Kiev covers the period from 12 May 1990 to 25 March 1991. Increasing discrimination against women at work and shifting women’s status in Ukrainian society marked the 1990s. After a Soviet period in which feminism was thought of as ‘bourgeois’ ideology, Pavlychko revitalized the concept of feminism in Ukraine, organizing the first feminist seminar in Ukraine at the archconservative Institute of Literature (Kiev) in 1990. Together with Oksana Zabuzhko and Vira Aheyeva, Pavlychko laid the foundations for a revitalized Ukrainian feminist critique, embedded in two trends in contemporary Ukrainian society: the revival of nationalism in the 1990s (rooted in Ukrainian romantic nationalism of the early nineteenth century ) and the rediscovery of 1960s and 1970s feminist literary criticism. In her article “Between Feminism and Nationalism: New Women’s Groups in the Ukraine” (1992), Pavlychko criticized an illusory vision of womanhood imposed by those unwilling to accept new roles for women in post-Soviet Ukraine. In “Feminism in Post-Communist Ukrainian Society” (1996), she examined the backlash against women’s emancipation in Ukraine during the early 1990s, concluding on a pessimistic note that revival of a Ukrainian matriarchal cultural myth: Berehinya (hearth mother) favored the relegation of women to the domestic sphere. Through her interviews and appearances in the media, Pavlychko helped bring feminism and modernism to the fore of public discussion . In her essay “Modernism vs. Populism” (1996), Pavlychko broke new ground, interrogating gender and feminist issues in Ukrainian literary texts and revealing deep connections between literary production and identity construction in contemporary Ukraine. Presenting an anthology From Three Worlds: New Ukrainian Writing, a collection of writing from sixteen young Ukrainian writers translated into English, Pavlychko concluded that it was the inner freedom felt by national writers and the intelligentsia that had led to Ukrainian independence; that the sign of that freedom was the...


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