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293 MALINOVA, Julia (also Julie Malinoff) (1869–1953) Co-founder (1901) and head (1908–1910; 1912–1926) of the Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz (Bulgarian Women’s Union), and Honorary President from 1926; editor of Zhenski glas (Women’s voice), the official newspaper of the Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz. Julia Malinova was born Jakovlevna Scheider, of Russian Jewish parents. She received her university education in France and Switzerland, where she became attracted to contemporary liberal ideas. No data exists regarding her parents or the life she led before moving to Bulgaria . She came to Sofia at the invitation of the family of professor Mykhailo Drahomanov (1841–1895), a Ukrainian historian who taught at Sofia University from 1889 until his death (See also Olena Pchilka and Lesia Ukrainka)). She converted to Orthodoxy (Anna Karima was her godmother) before marrying Alexander Malinov (1867–1938). Malinov was a lawyer, leader of the Democratic Party, Prime-Minister of Bulgaria (1908–1911, 1918, 1931) and Vice-President of the Bulgarian Parliament (1931–1934). The couple had five children: three daughters and two sons. Julia Malinova was a founder of the Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz (BZhS, Bulgarian Women’s Union) and a member of its first board, positions befitting a woman imbibed with the spirit of the revolutionary Russian intelligentsia and who had received her education in the liberal milieu of the French and Swiss Universities. From 1899, together with Anna Karima (the first head of the BZhS), Malinova co-edited Zhenski glas until 1901, when it became the mouthpiece of the BZhS. Malinova was then appointed editor-in-chief. She was twice elected President of the BZhS (1908–1910 and 1912–1926) and in 1908, under her leadership, the BZhS became a member of the International Council of Women (ICW) and the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA later IAWSEC/IAW), with Malinova attending the Stockholm Congress of the IAW in 1911. After some initial years of instability, as well as ideological and personal tensions and rivalries, the BZhS gradually took shape under Malinova’s leadership as an organization “transcending class and party” to become “truly feminist” (as the congress literature put it). Clarifying its goals and strategies, the BZhS incorporated the agenda of the international women’s movement, including issues such as 294 political and civil rights for women, equal education for women and men, access of women to all professions and posts in the civil service, equal pay for equal work, equal moral standards, campaigns against the traffic in women and state regulation of prostitution , married women’s nationality, peace and disarmament. Like many other women activists during the Balkan Wars and World War I, Julia Malinova led the wives of soldiers in a wide range of charitable initiatives. In 1925, she was a delegate to the Washington Congress of the ICW. In 1926, the BZhS (which at that time consisted of around 7,000 women, including housewives, teachers and state employees) celebrated its 25th anniversary and the 25th year of Julia Malinova’s public activity. Soon after, Malinova was targeted as a foreigner by the Bulgarski Zhenski Sujuz ‘Lujbov kum Rodinata’ (Bulgarian Women’s Union ‘for the Love of the Motherland’), a small nationalistic and right-wing organization affiliated to the male army officers’ union, ‘National Defence.’ The Women’s Union ‘for the Love of the Motherland’ employed the same, extreme nationalist and xenophobic rhetoric of its male parent organization. In order to preserve the unity of the BZhS (the oldest Bulgarian feminist organization ), Julia Malinova resigned in July 1926 at the BZhS’s twentieth Congress. The Congress pronounced her Honorary President of the BZhS and established a fund in her name: Julia Malinova – podslon za zheni (the Julia Malinova Women’s Shelter). In her capacity as Honorary President, Malinova continued to follow and participate in the activities of the BZhS throughout the late 1920s and 1930s. She managed an orphanage run by the society Milosurdie (Charity) and founded Suiuz na siratsite (an Orphanage Union), as well as a summer recreation house for orphans in the town of Berkovitsa. She set up a service, Zhenski trud (Women’s Labor), granting opportunities to women seeking employment and financial independence, and also worked for Suiuz za obshtestvena podkrepa (the Social Support Union), providing assistance to orphans and the elderly. Julia Malinova’s house was always open to women in need, a hallmark of her generosity and great humanity. She died in 1953. Krassimira Daskalova St. Kliment Ohrodski, University of Sofia SOURCES (A) Narodna Biblioteka Kiril I Metodii, Bulgarski Istoricheski...


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