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207 KAL’MANOVICH, Anna Andreevna (dates of birth and death unknown) Russian feminist activist from Saratov; one of the first to speak out publicly for women’s equal political rights in the period leading up to the 1905 Revolution and one of the few Jewish women active in the movement. Steered an independent course between women’s rights advocates aligned with liberal or socialist parties; supporter of suffragism ; attended the congress of the International Council of Women (ICW) in Berlin (1904), as well as congresses of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA). Anna Andreevna Kal’manovich (personal and family data unknown) had a public career which by the 1905 Russian Revolution had moved from philanthropy in the 1890s to radical feminism. In 1893, she founded the Saratovskoe Evreiskoe Popechitel’stvo o Bol’nykh (Saratov Hebrew Society for the Care of the Sick), remaining its President until 1904. She also founded a children’s committee and served as liaison to the local society for poor relief before becoming immersed in feminist activities. She gave her first public speech—a report on the 1904 Berlin Congress of the International Council of Women, originally written for Mariia Pokrovskaia’s Zhenskii Vestnik (Women’s herald)—in December 1904, in which she elaborated upon key elements of her feminist politics: her interest in, and ties to the international feminist movement; her advocacy of an independent feminist position distinct from those defined by ‘male politics,’ and her proud description of herself as a feminist. Kal’manovich’s husband was Samuil Eremeevich Kal’manovich, a prominent defense lawyer involved in many of the major political trials leading up to, and during the 1905 Revolution. They had children but names, birthdates and numbers are unknown. Barely escaping the wrecking of their apartment in 1905, as the extreme nationalist and antiSemitic Chernosotentsy (Black Hundreds) was scapegoating Jews for the failures of the tsarist regime at home and abroad, the Kal’manoviches fled Saratov and soon after left Russia. Two years in exile gave Anna Kal’manovich the opportunity to strengthen her contacts with foreign feminists and develop her talents as a public speaker. She attended International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) congresses in Copenhagen (1906) and Amsterdam (1908). She lectured on the women’s movement to Russian groups in Geneva , Lausanne and Zurich, and took part in a debate on women’s rights organized by professors at the University of Geneva. Kal’manovich observed that women encounter hostility only when they seek democratic rights for themselves: they were not, she argued , “fighting against men, but against ignorance, selfishness and prejudice” (Kal’manovich 1908, 35, 37; R. R. trans). It was around this period that two of Kal’manovich’s daughters emigrated—at least temporarily—to Argentina. Returning to Russia, Kal’manovich participated in meetings of the Soiuz Ravnopraviia Zhenshchin (Women’s Equal Rights Union) and wrote for the leading feminist periodicals Soiuz Zhenshchin (Union of women) and Zhenskii Vestnik (Woman’s her- 208 ald). She also gave lectures, of which her most notable and controversial was delivered to the 1908 All-Russian Women’s Congress. Entitled Zhenskoe Dvizhenie i Otnosheniia Partii k Nemu (The women’s movement and how the parties relate to it), the lecture marked one of the clearest arguments by a Russian feminist for the primacy of women’s oppression. For Kal’manovich women, like the proletariat, were oppressed as a class and as such, they had to fight for their own liberation. Facing vocal opposition from socialists and liberals, Kal’manovich, citing her husband and sons, decried those who called her a man-hater and declared herself a “patriot for women” (lecture reprinted in Aivazdova, ed. 1998, 205–219). After the 1908 Congress, Kal’manovich and many other Soiuz activists (such as Mariia Chekhova, Zinaida Mirovich, Liudmila Ruttsen and Ariadna Tyrkova) joined the Liga ravnopraviia zhenshchin (League for Women’s Equal Rights), continuing their feminist agitation as the democratic hopes kindled by the 1905 Revolution faded further from view. Kal’manovich spoke at the Pervyi Vserossiiskii S’ezd po Bor’be s Torgom Zhenshchinami (First All-Russian Congress on the Struggle against the Trade in Women), held on 21–25 April 1910. She contested the claims of both government representatives, who defended state regulation of prostitution, and Marxists, who argued that prostitution was an outgrowth of capitalism—demanding that attention be paid to gender discrimination in prostitution and calling for the abolition of stateregulated prostitution. During this time, Kal’manovich’s interest in the suffrage movement...


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