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178 HORÁKOVÁ, Milada (1901–1950) Czech lawyer (JUDr.) and politician; colleague and co-worker (from 1923) of Františka Plamínková in the Ženska národn í rada (National Council of Women); founder and head (1945–1948) of the Rada československych žen (Council of Czechoslovak Women). Milada Horáková, maiden name Králov á, was born in Prague on 25 December 1901, to a middle-class, patriotic Czech family. Her parents, Čeněk Král (1869– 1955) and Anna Králová, maiden name Velíšková (1875–1933), had four children (Marta, Milada, Jiří and Věra). Her father was a pencil factory owner in České Budějovice; her mother took care of the children at home, as was customary in middle-class families at that time. In 1913, tragedy struck the family when Marta and Jiří died of scarlet fever. This sad event had an impact on Milada´s later life; from that moment she felt that practical assistance rather than pity was needed to alleviate suffering . The sadness in the Král family was soothed by the birth of Věra in 1915. Through her father, a supporter of the philosopher and future Czechoslovak President Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937), Milada Králová became familiar with Masaryk’s ideas and activities. Later on, during the course of her own study of Masaryk’s work, his ideas greatly influenced her own thinking concerning the position of women in society and the family. Masaryk’s democratic and humanist ideas became a key with which Králová could interpret the world, including issues of Czechoslovak statehood. Milada Králová grew up during World War I and other important historical turning points: the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy and the establishment of the independent Czechoslovak State (1918). After graduating from the Gymnázium (high school) for girls in Prague (1921), she needed to make a decision about her future career. Although she had wanted to study medicine, thinking that as a medical doctor she would be in a better position to help relieve suffering, her father dissuaded her from this course, convinced as he was that doctors had been partly responsible for the death of his two children. Instead he persuaded his daughter to study law, believing that as a lawyer she would also be able to help people. During her studies at the law 179 faculty of Charles University in Prague, she joined the Czechoslovak Red Cross in order to participate in voluntary social work. In 1923, she met the leader of the Czechoslovak women’s movement, Františka Plamínková, and became involved in activities of the Ženska národní rada (National Council of Women). Králová (Horáková from 1927) and Plamínková remained colleagues until 1940, Horáková taking care of the legal and social agenda within the Ženska národní rada. At that time, the civil code was about to be changed and the Ženska národní rada tried to insert equality of the sexes into its paragraphs (especially those dealing with the relations between spouses and their children) on the basis of the fact that the equality of women and men in all spheres of life had already been made part of the Czechoslovak Constitution. Horáková proposed the modification of relevant family law paragraphs. She discussed her suggestions with the women’s organization of each political party, with clubs that worked with mothers and children and with politicians and Ministry officials. She tried to find a compromise that deputies and senators from the conservative parties would be willing to vote for as well. Despite her efforts however, the proposals made by the Ženska národní rada were not accepted during the hearing of the amendment in Parliament. Horáková strove for absolute equality between women and men. In her view, all aspects of a woman’s life, her profession, public activity and motherhood, should be harmonized. She advocated that women have paid employment, not in order to maintain their families but so that they might realize their own needs. The education of women should not only prepare women for later employment, but also for motherhood . She perceived the role of mother to be irreplaceable. For this reason she promoted the idea that women who decided to devote their lives solely to the family should be eligible for both legal and social security. In the fall of 1926, Králová finished Law School and received her doctoral degree on 22 October. She married Dr Bohuslav Horák (1899...


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