In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

162 GLÜCKLICH, Vilma (1872–1927) First woman in Hungary to receive a degree from the Faculty of Philosophy, Budapest State University; advocate of pedagogical reform and theoretician of pedagogy and girls’ education; eminent figure of the left-liberal wing of the Hungarian women’s movement and internationalist; head of the Feministák Egyesülete (Feminist Association) from 1904 to her death; suffrage and peace activist; holder of high-ranking positions in the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) in the 1920s. Vilma Glücklich was born on 9 August 1872, in Vágujhely (Nové Mesto, today Slovakia) into a Jewish family, the youngest of four children (including a brother named Emil). Her father was a high school teacher, her mother from an educated family. Vilma grew up in Budapest. After completing lower-level secondary school, Vilma combined high school with teacher training and in this way received her final exam certificate (maturita or abitur: a necessary condition for entering formal academic education). In addition to Hungarian, Vilma Glücklich spoke German, Italian, English and French fluently. From 1893, Glücklich worked as an upper-level secondary school teacher in Fiume (Rijeka, today Croatia). Upon the partial opening of Hungarian universities to women, she resigned from her position and enrolled in the Budapest State University in 1896, completing a course of study in physics and mathematics and becoming the first woman to graduate from the Faculty of Philosophy. From 1898, she worked continuously as a lower-level secondary school teacher of girls for a municipal school in Budapest . Soon after being promoted to teach at a gymnázium (high school) in 1914, she requested to be reinstalled as a lower-level secondary school teacher, convinced that the pedagogical work she could carry out for girls at this level would yield greater rewards. By 1917, she had become a headmistress. Between 1913 and 1917, she was an officer of the Országos Polgári Iskolai Tanáregyesület (National Association of LowerLevel Secondary School Teachers). In late 1918, the National Council (a transitional representative political body established prior to, and lasting through the first shortVilma Glücklich, 1912, with an issue of A Nő és a Társadalom, the journal of the Feministák Egyesülete (FE) in her hands. 163 lived democratic regime in Hungary) appointed Glücklich as one of two female members of a Supervision Committee for the municipal administration of Budapest. When, in 1921 (under the semi-authoritarian right-wing Horthy regime), Glücklich protested the continuous involvement of girls in glove knitting for the military, she lost her post and pension entitlement as a result of disciplinary proceedings. Glücklich became a leading figure in the women’s movement after she had been elected a Board Member of the Nőtisztviselők Országos Egyesülete (NOE, National Association of Woman Employees) in May 1902. Together with NOE President Róza Schwimmer, Glücklich soon became involved in establishing a women workers’ organization . Glücklich was to be Schwimmer’s closest co-worker in Hungary for over a decade, as well as a key figure in bringing Hungarian and international developments into entangled relations with one another. Leading the Constituting General Assembly of the Feministák Egyesülete (FE, Feminist Association) in December 1904, Glücklich’s speech, prior to becoming Executive President of the new organization, received wide attention in the Hungarian press. (In an anti-formalistic and anti-hierarchical move, Glücklich refused to accept the title of President, while remaining the formal head of the FE until her death.) In 1906, Glücklich edited Feminista Értesítő (Feminist bulletin), the first journal of the FE. Over the years, her activities and articles—published in A Nő és a Társadalom (Woman and society), later renamed A Nő. Feminista Folyóirat (Woman. A feminist journal), and educational periodicals—focused on pedagogy (school reform, coeducation and child protection). Glücklich also actively participated in suffrage work and other activities organized by the FE. She played a key role, for example, in the running of the “Select a Profession” counseling system for girls and their parents, established in 1905 by the FE in close cooperation with the reform-oriented head of the municipal education department, the later Major of Budapest, István Bárczy. The outbreak of World War I caused irreparable damage to Glücklich’s faith in the educability of humankind, changing her for life. From this period onwards, she continued...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.