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102 DASZYŃSKA-GOLIŃSKA, Zofia (1866–1934) Polish socialist, suffrage campaigner and social activist; economist, sociologist, professor at the Wolna Wszechnica Polska (Free Polish University), publicist and member of the Polish Senate (1928– 1930). Pseudonyms: Jaskółka, ‘Z. D.,’ ‘ZDG (Dr ZDG),’ ‘Z,’ ‘z,’ ‘PD,’ ‘ZP,’ ‘Z. G.’ and ‘S. P. Dański.’ Zofia Daszyńska-Golińska (nee Pozna ńska) was born in Warsaw on 6 August 1866, to an impoverished landowning family. Her parents, Damian Poznański— an agronomist and estate administrator— and Aniela born Puternicka (no further data), created an atmosphere conducive to intellectual development at home (where Zofia, her sister Wanda and brother Michał were all educated). In 1878, having graduated from a state grammar school for girls in Warsaw (finishing the last two years of secondary education in Lublin), Zofia Poznańska became a private tutor. In 1885, she took up studies in political economy and economic history at the University of Zurich, which she completed in 1891 with a doctorate in demography entitled Zürichs Bevölkerung im XVIII Jahrhundert (Zurich’s population in the eighteenth century ). The following year she moved to Vienna to continue her studies in economics and history, later—after several years in Warsaw—becoming an assistant professor at the Humboldt University in Berlin (1894–1896). While studying abroad, Poznańska encountered socialist activists, one of whom, Feliks Daszyński (1863–1890), she married in 1888. Her husband was the brother of Ignacy Daszyński (1866–1936), an outstanding socialist figure, leader of the Polska Partia Socjaldemokratyczna Galicji i Śląska Cieszyńskiego (PPS, Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia and Teschen Silesia) and, in the interwar period, Prime Minister (1918) and Deputy Prime Minister (1920) of the Polish Republic. In 1890, Feliks Daszyński died unexpectedly and several years later, Daszyńska married Stanisław Goliński (1868–1931), a botanist. The Golinskis did not have their own children but brought up Stanislaw’s son Jan from a previous marriage (Jan would later become a doctor and independence activist). Daszyńska-Golińska was active in many spheres of life: research, politics, social activism and publishing. Upon her return from Germany, she settled in Cracow (then in 103 autonomous Habsburg Galicia), where she associated herself with the PPS. She wrote for the socialist periodicals Naprzód (Forward), Prawo Ludu (People’s right), Gazeta Robotnicza (Workers’ gazette), Światło (Light), the progressive democratic review Krytyka (Criticism), Głos (Voice), Prawda (Truth), Przegląd Tygodniowy (Weekly review ), Przegląd Poznański (Poznan review), the scientific Ateneum, Biblioteka Warszawska (Warsaw library), Ekonomista (Economist) and Czasopismo Prawne i Ekonomiczne (Journal of law and economics)—winning appreciation as a versatile and adept social researcher. Politically, Daszyńska-Golińska departed from orthodox Marxism, moving gradually towards a revisionism inspired by the works of Eduard Bernstein. She was interested in Hegel and Nietzsche, read the works of Karl Kautsky and Ferdinand Lassalle, admired the intellectual achievements of the Fabians and rejected the ideas of Malthus in his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). Her creative thinking formed the basis of lectures she gave at various educational institutions where women made up a substantial part of the student body. (From all three Polish partitions, these were female students who had been refused admission to institutions of higher education . In 1897, the Polonized Galician Universities in Lviv and Cracow opened their faculties of philosophy and medicine to women). From 1892 to 1894, DaszyńskaGoli ńska worked at the Flying University—a secret academy for women founded in 1885. In 1907, the Flying University was legalized and renamed the Towarzystwo Kurs ów Naukowych (Society for Scientific Studies) and in that year Daszyńska-Golińska lectured for the new Society. Later (1910–1911), she lectured at the Adrian Braniecki Courses in Cracow, at the School of Household Economics in Lviv and at the Adam Mickiewicz People’s University in Cracow (an organization aimed at raising levels of education, particularly among the poorer social strata). In 1919, she became professor of economics at the Wolna Wszechnica Polska (Free Polish University) in Warsaw (a private higher education institution, formed in 1919, which had evolved from the Society for Scientific Studies). Early on in her career, Daszyńska-Golińska began to associate herself with the Polish and international women’s and feminist movements. From the mid-1890s, she was affiliated with the Koło Pracy Kobiet (Women’s Labor Society), an organization coordinating women’s activities (mainly practical...


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