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80 BUDZIŃSKA-TYLICKA, Justyna (1867–1936) Polish physician, feminist, social and political activist; involved in the International Socialist Women’s Movement, the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF); co-founder in 1923 of the Little Entente of Women (LEW). Justyna Budzińska was born on 12 September 1867 in Suwałki (in numerous sources an incorrect place of birth is given: Łomża), to a family of many children . Her mother’s name was Jadwiga (no other data available). Her father, Alfons, a veterinary surgeon, was deported to Siberia for his involvement in the 1863 January Uprising against Russian occupation. Justyna was sent to a girls’ boarding school in Warsaw. Her family situation was complicated: her father had died and she was forced to earn her own living. Nonetheless, she managed to complete her education at the school, pass her high school final exams as an extramural student and start work as a teacher-governess at a manor in the Ukraine. By then she was eighteen, and with this first job as a teacher, also running a secret school for village children, she became involved in the kinds of social activities that would later come to characterize her life. In 1892, she found the material resources necessary to cover a period of study in Paris, where she pursued courses in medicine. During her studies she lived, as did the majority of her fellow students, in difficult financial conditions, but threw herself into social activities: helping Polish émigrés (from the Polish Kingdom) in France, participating in debates and distributing underground publications. In 1895, she briefly joined the Parisian section of the Zagraniczny Związek Socjalistów Polskich (Foreign Association of Polish Socialists) but soon distanced herself from the socialist movement—a distance she would maintain for almost thirty years while remaining faithful to socialist ideas throughout her life. Around 1894, Justyna Budzińska married Stanisław Tylicki. While still a student, she gave birth to a son, Stanisław (d. 1918). In 1898, she became a doctor of medicine. Early on in her medical career, she became especially interested in the fight against pulmonary tuberculosis. As a young doctor, she set up a practice in a little town near Paris. Three years after the birth of her son, she gave birth to a daughter, Wanda 81 (exact data unknown), whom she breastfed herself as an advocate of modern approaches to motherhood. Wanda’s father was also actively involved in the care of the child. Continuing her social activities, Justyna Budzińska-Tylicka became an Honorary Member of a local workers’ society for mutual assistance. After the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Tylickis decided to return to Poland, to Cracow (under Austrian partition) since they had been denied permission to live in the Polish Kingdom because of their political activities and connections with the socialist movement. In Cracow, Budzińska-Tylicka cooperated with campaigners for women’s equality such as Kazimiera Bujwidowa and Maria Turzyma-Wiśniewska. She was also active in the Towarzystwo Szkół Ludowych (Society of Elementary Schools) and the Towarzystwo Opieki nad Dziećmi (Society for Child Welfare). After two years, she and her family moved to Warsaw, where she worked as an assistant at the Hospital of the Holy Spirit from 1908 to 1916. She became involved in the temperance movement and was also active in the Society Against Tuberculosis, the Polish Society for Hygiene and the Towarzystwo Kolonii Letnich dla Kobiet Pracujących (Summer Camp Society for Working Women). She was one of the first female physicians to work in schools for girls and between 1910 and 1912, she worked at the girls’ boarding school of PopielewskaRoszkowska in Warsaw, where she studied and promoted modern principles of hygiene and new pedagogical methods in girls’ education. She wrote handbooks on female hygiene and pamphlets concerning the health and legal protection of mothers. She also had her own private practice, mainly for people suffering from lung disease. As a supporter of women’s equal rights, she became an active member of the Związek Równouprawnienia Kobiet Polskich (Union of Equal Rights for Polish Women), led by Paulina Kuczalska-Reinschmit and legalized in 1907. From 1912, she was also active in the Society of Oarswomen, of which she became President, as well as in the Liga Kobiet Pogotowia Wojennego (Women’s League for War Alert, whose aim was to prepare women for a possible war). During World...


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