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51 BELOVIĆ-BERNADZIKOWSKA, Jelica (1870–1946) Bosnian pedagogue, ethnographer and writer; editor-in-chief of Srpkinja (The Serbian woman, 1913); pseudonyms Ljube T. Daničić, Jelica, Jele, Jasna, Hele, teta Jelica and Mlada Ana gospoja. Jelica Belović was born in Osijek, Croatia on 25 February 1870, into an ethnically mixed middle-class family of teachers. Josip, her Croatian-born father of Montenegrin descent, taught at the Osijek gymnasium. Her Croatian-born mother Katerina (born Fragner) was of German descent and tutored young children in order to make ends meet, following the untimely death of her husband in 1875. At home, Jelica and her younger siblings, Gabriela and Josip, spoke French, German, Italian and SerboCroatian . By her own admission she was a precocious, highly-strung child. According to Belović this often got her into trouble with her mother, who favored her son over her daughters. This early experience sensitized her to sexual inequality that she would later challenge. Despite having lost her father at the tender age of five, Belović later attributed her love of books and learning to him. She graduated from elementary school in Osijek, gymnasium in Djakovo, teacher’s college in Zagreb and later went on to higher pedagogical studies in Vienna and Paris. She went on to teach in various locations including Zagreb and Osijek. In 1895, Jelica Belović moved to Bosnia-Herzegovina to teach in girls’ schools in Mostar and Sarajevo. The country had been an occupied territory of the AustroHungarian Empire since the Congress of Berlin in 1878. While working in Mostar, she met and fell in love with a handsome civil servant of the Austro-Hungarian Empire named Janko Bernadzikowski. They married in February 1896. She was thereafter known as Jelica Belović-Bernadzikowska. With Janko she had two children, Vladimir and Jasna. In 1898 she became the principal (upraviteljica) of the girls’ gymnasium in Banja Luka in Bosnia, where she remained until the end of WWI. Her passion for education led her to become among the most prolific contemporary female writers of the South Slavs. The two subjects that consumed her throughout her life were pedagogy and ethnography. She contributed articles to several periodicals on the subject of pedagogy, including Školski Vjesnik (The school courier), 52 Školski Odjek (The school echo) and Školski List (The school journal). She also translated studies on pedagogy and wrote books on the subject, including Iz moga albuma (From my album, 1900). Belović-Bernadzikowska also contributed to children’s periodicals such as Spomenak (Forget-me-not) and wrote children’s books including Naša omladinska literature (Our youth literature, 1897) and Meanderi (Meanderings, 1900). Belović-Bernadzikowska’s second great passion was ethnography, especially folk arts. Her contemporaries called her the female counterpart to Vuk Karadžic (1787– 1864), ethnographer and the father of Serbian folk studies. Among some of her best known works were the Gradja za Tehnološki Rječnik Ženskog Ručnog Rada (Technical dictionary of women’s handiwork, 1898), Poljske cvijeće (Polish blooms, 1899), Hrvatska čitma (Croatian lace, 1906) and Srpski narodni vez I tekstilna ornamenti (Serbian national embroidery and textile ornaments, 1907). Belović-Bernadzikowska also collaborated over a long time with the well-known ethnographer, sexologist and editor-inchief of Anthropophyteia (1904–1913), Dr. Friedrich Salomo Krauss (1859–1938). Keenly aware of her unusual position as a highly educated woman and sensitive to sexual inequality (having experienced it firsthand on more than one occasion), Belovi ć-Bernadzikowska became involved in improving the social and cultural status of women. Over the years she published numerous articles on the changing roles of women in the public and private spheres. Some of these included “Žena Budućnosti” (Woman of the future) and “Moderne Žene” (Modern women), both of which appeared in a special women’s issue of Herzegovina’s literary-cultural journal Zora (Dawn) in 1899. Here, Belović-Bernadzikowska argued that the modern woman was not limited by her obligations as wife and mother; that the ideal modern woman understood that it was her duty to contribute to the social and cultural welfare of her people. She needed to be well-read and educated so that she could better serve both her community and her family. In this way she could become a completely developed individual, tender-hearted and enlightened, mother of her family and mother to her nation. In Krauss’ Anthropophyteia and under the pseudonym Ljube T. Daničić, she also contributed a series of articles on the social and sexual lives of rural South Slavs. A...


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