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67 67 Strophic Poem: A Muwashshaḥah by al-Aʿmā al-Tuṭīlī ْ ‫ر‬ ‫ب�ا‬ � ُ ‫ك‬ � ��� ٍ ‫ر‬‫م‬� ‫أ‬� � ‫ل‬ � � ‫ا‬ � ‫ل‬ � � ‫�إ‬ ‫�ا‬ ‫ي‬ � ‫�ق‬�‫ت‬ �‫ل‬� � ‫ا‬ ‫�ا‬‫م‬� ْ ‫ر‬ ‫�ا‬‫ن‬��‫و‬�� ٌ ‫ء‬‫�ا‬‫م‬� ْ ‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ح‬ � ‫ع‬ ‫و‬�‫ل‬�� ُ‫ض‬ �� �‫و‬�� ‫ح‬ � ‫و‬� ‫�ف‬� َ ‫�ص‬ � ٌ ‫ع‬ �‫م‬�‫د‬ ْ ‫ل‬�‫ي‬ ���‫و‬�‫ط‬ �� � ‫ء‬‫�ا‬‫ن‬ �‫ع‬ �‫و‬�� ٌ ‫ر‬‫ي‬ ��‫ص‬� � ‫�ق‬ � � ٌ ‫ر‬‫�م‬‫ع‬ � ْ ‫ل‬� � ‫و‬�� ‫�ذ‬ � َ ‫ع‬ �‫ل‬� � ‫ا‬ ‫د‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ � ‫�ا‬‫م‬� ‫ي‬ � � � ‫ر‬‫�م‬‫ع‬ �‫ل‬� � ‫س‬�� ‫ئ‬ ��‫ب‬ �� ْ ‫ل‬� ‫ي‬ ��‫��س‬‫�م‬ ‫ت‬ �‫ب‬��‫ص�ا‬� � ‫أ‬ � ‫�د‬ ‫ق‬ � � � ً‫ا‬ �‫ع‬ �‫و‬�‫م‬�‫د‬ ‫�ا‬ ‫ي‬ ��‫و‬�� ْ ‫ل‬�‫ي‬ ��‫ل‬�� ‫�غ‬ � ‫ن‬ �‫ع‬ � ْ‫ت‬ � ‫�ق‬�‫ط‬ �� �‫ن‬ �� ٍ ‫ت‬ �‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ف‬ � � � ‫�ز‬ ‫�ا‬ ‫ي‬ �� damʿun safūḥun wa-ḍulūʿun ḥirār māʾun wa-nār mā ltaqayā ʾillā li-ʾamrin kubār biʾsa la-ʿamrī mā ʾarāda l-ʿadhūl ʿumrun qaṣīrun wa-ʿanāʾun ṭawīl yā zafarātin naṭaqat ʿan ghalīl wa-yā dumūʿan qad ʾaṣābat masīl228 In order to show the structure of this and a few other strophic poems, a complete strophe is given in transliteration. Structure: RRR aaaa RRR bbbb RRR cccc RRR dddd RRR eeee RRR; strophes indicated with capitals are asmāṭ, sg. simṭ, those with lower case are aghṣān, sg. ghuṣn. The opening simṭ is sometimes called maṭlaʿ and the last simṭ is called kharjah, which often employs a form of colloquial Arabic and sometimes, as here, Romance or proto-Spanish. The kharjah is often put into the mouth of a girl who sings (but here a masculine form is found). The reading and interpretation of this kharjah are controversial.229 Strophic poetry, which originated in Spain, spread to the East. The poems, mostly lyrical, are usually meant to be sung. Meter: not all muwashshaḥāt can be scanned according to the classical meters, but this one is clearly based on the sarīʿ: XXSL XXSL LSL, with an extra foot (XLSL) inserted in the simṭ. The poet Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh (d. 525/1130), known as al-Aʿmā al-Tuṭīlī (“the blind man from Tudela”) was active mostly in Seville. 68 68 68 68 Verse tears poured out and hot ribs water and fire do not come together but for a grave matter bad, surely, what the censor wants a short life, long misery o sighs that speak of ardent love o tears that have made a stream being together is impossible, visiting is remote where can one find rest I would fly but have found no place to fly o kaaba to which hearts go on pilgrimage between passion that calls and yearning that answers everyone, moaning, turns to it here I am, here I am!230 say to the spy take me on pilgrimage to her, the greater and the lesser no excuse my heart the sacrifice, my tears the pebbles231 welcome though he expose me to death one with swaying body and languid eyelids o harshness which the lover thinks is softness you have taught me how to mistrust since he holds back from these short nights my sleep is just a wink as if a sword’s blade lay between my lids I have made a master rule whose judgment is unjust I allude to him not saying his name outright marvel at my fairness against his iniquity and ask him about my state and his cutting-off he took away my share of good fortune, willfully and by choice obeying his shyness every human company after him may be chosen freely (?)232 I cannot be without him wherever and wherever a master who accuses, is harsh, is arrogant he left me a hostage to grief and madness then he sang between soberness and seduction:233 mon darling est infirme de mon amour … (?) … (?) ...


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