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THE SEVENTH BOOK OF THE COMMENTAR Y ON THE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE ROMANS ust as we have shown that paul brings up various kinds of laws in this letter under the single term “law”1 and names various kinds of death under the one appellation “death,”2 similarly, now we see various kinds of spirits being indicated under the one name “spirit.” Thus, he says in the present section: For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.3 Surely he is speaking here of the Spirit of God. And again in what comes next he says, “For you have not received a spirit of slavery again unto fear,”4 in which he shows that the spirit of slavery is different from him whom he called above the Spirit of God. And for this reason he adds, “But you have received the Spirit of adoption, by which we cry: Abba, Father!”5 In this he makes known that the Spirit of adoption is identical with him whom he had above called the Spirit of God. He goes on to say of him, “The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit ”;6 that is to say, the same Spirit of God by whom we cry out “God, Father!” bears witness with our spirit. Doubtless, our spirit is different both from the spirit of slavery who is given unto fear, and from him who supplies it testimony concerning the invocation of the Father.7 Then all human beings, as it seems, are led by some spirit, as Paul himself writes, “You yourselves know that when you were Gentiles, you were being led to mute idols.”8 There he is showing that even Gentiles are led to idols by some spirit. (2) So then, the Spirit of God is the same as the Spirit of 1. Cf. Preface of Origen (8); 3.6.1; 4.4.2–10; 4.5.7; 5.1.24; 5.6.2–4; 5.10.9; 6.8.2; 6.9.2; 7.1.1; 7.19.7. 2. Cf. 5.10.9; 6.6.5. 3. Rom 8.14. 4. Rom 8.15. 5. Rom 8.15. 6. Rom 8.16. 7. Cf. Rom 8.15–16. 8. 1 Cor 12.2. 60 Christ, who is himself the same as the Holy Spirit. Moreover, the Spirit of adoption seems to be called the same [Spirit], as the Apostle’s current passage declares. David too seems to be speaking of the same Spirit, whom he calls, “May you not take your Holy Spirit from me”; and, “with the governing Spirit, strengthen me.”9 Because of this, I believe that he is called the governing Spirit that it might be shown that indeed there are many spirits but among them the Holy Spirit, who is named “governing,” holds sovereignty and dominion.10 For just as there are many sons of God, as the Scripture says, “I have said: You are gods, and you are all sons of the Most High,”11 and yet there is one who is by nature the Son and only-begotten from the Father,12 through whom all sons are named, so also there are indeed many spirits, yet there is one who truly proceeds from God himself.13 It is he who bestows the grace of his own name and sanctification to all the others. But that there are more [M1104] spirits, this same Paul also declares when writing to the Hebrews, stating, “Are they not all ministering spirits sent to serve for the sake of those who will inherit salvation?”14 Moreover, David says, “Who makes his angels spirits.”15 And Daniel, no less, bears testimony and says, “Praise the Lord, you spirits and souls of the just.”16 And in the passage at hand Paul says, “The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit,”17 and elsewhere, “that your whole spirit and soul and body may be preserved on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.”18 It is not a matter of doubt that all these things have been said of rational spirits . (3) In addition, spirits are labeled “evil” and angels [are labeled ] “evil,” both as David says, “He sent to them the wrath of his own indignation, an embassy through evil angels”;19 and as it is written in the Books of the Kingdoms about Saul, “And the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul and an evil spirit from the Lord...


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